How to format your references using the Case Reports in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Endy D. Foundations for engineering biology. Nature. 2005 Nov;438(7067):449–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Koo H-J, Velev OD. Regenerable photovoltaic devices with a hydrogel-embedded microvascular network. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Kim S, Wong P, Coulombe PA. A keratin cytoskeletal protein regulates protein synthesis and epithelial cell growth. Nature. 2006 May;441(7091):362–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Kim W, Zhu W, Hendricks GL, Van Tyne D, Steele AD, Keohane CE, et al. A new class of synthetic retinoid antibiotics effective against bacterial persisters. Nature. 2018 Apr;556(7699):103–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Bauer E. Design for Reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1
Agah A, Cabibihan J-J, Howard AM, Salichs MA, He H, editors. Social Robotics: 8th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Kansas City, MO, USA, November 1-3, 2016 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Liu E. Biology Education in China 2000–2010. In: Kim M, Diong CH, editors. Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012; pp 51–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Mediterranean Diet May Slow Down Age-Associated Cognitive Decline [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/mediterranean-diet-may-slow-down-age-associated-cognitive-decline/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area Plan: Fiscal Years 1998-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Jordan AD. Measuring the efficacy of a Ninth Grade Academy on students with disabilities. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Saslow L. Babylon Supervisor Wants Town to Go Green. New York Times. 2006 Nov;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (online)1663-2699
ScopeOphthalmology

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