How to format your references using the Case Reports in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Doumbo OK. Global voices of science. It takes a village: medical research and ethics in Mali. Science. 2005 Feb;307(5710):679–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Calais E, Stein S. Time-variable deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone. Science. 2009 Mar;323(5920):1442.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Debayle E, Kennett B, Priestley K. Global azimuthal seismic anisotropy and the unique plate-motion deformation of Australia. Nature. 2005 Feb;433(7025):509–12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Schneider H, Downey J, Smith A, Zinselmeyer BH, Rush C, Brewer JM, et al. Reversal of the TCR stop signal by CTLA-4. Science. 2006 Sep;313(5795):1972–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Pischella M, Le Ruyet D. Digital Communications 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1
Grioli G, Truesdell C, editors. Non-linear Continuum Theories. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Espinosa HD. In-Situ Electron Microscopy Testing of Nanostructures. In: Gdoutos EE, editor. Experimental Analysis of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Alexandroupolis, Greece, July 1–6, 2007. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007; pp 9–10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1
Luntz S. Robot Crab To Give You Nightmares [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Mar [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/robot-crab-give-you-nightmares/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: DEA Has Developed Plans and Established Controls for Business Continuity Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Grasis JA. Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Vecsey G. A Whirlwind Start For St. John’s and Lavin. New York Times. 2010 Nov;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (online)1663-2699
ScopeOphthalmology

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