How to format your references using the Case Reports in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Menaker M. Circadian rhythms. Circadian photoreception. Science. 2003 Jan;299(5604):213–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Langley JA, Megonigal JP. Ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift. Nature. 2010 Jul;466(7302):96–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ravishankara AR, Daniel JS, Portmann RW. Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science. 2009 Oct;326(5949):123–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Renard VT, Duchemin I, Niida Y, Fujiwara A, Hirayama Y, Takashina K. Metallic behaviour in SOI quantum wells with strong intervalley scattering. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia JE. Dynamic Economic Decision Making. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
McGeer R, Berman M, Elliott C, Ricci R, editors. The GENI Book. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenfeld SS. Clinical Trials of Mitotic Kinesin Inhibitors. In: Frank KF, editor. Kinesins and Cancer. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015; pp 63–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Davis J. A British Man May Have Been Cured Of HIV [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues to Be Considered During Deliberations to Reauthorize the Federal-Aid Highway Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson AC. The lived experience of the adult African American female who has lived in multiple foster care placements. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Benanav M. A Way of Life, Fading Away. New York Times. 2017 Aug;TR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (online)1663-2699

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