How to format your references using the Journal of the Medical Library Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Medical Library Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Padian K. Owen’s Parthian shot. Nature. 2001 Jul 12;412(6843):123–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wang G, Cai W. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2039.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Buckley SA, Clark KA, Evershed RP. Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies. Nature. 2004 Sep 16;431(7006):294–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Fernández MA, Albor C, Ingelmo-Torres M, Nixon SJ, Ferguson C, Kurzchalia T, Tebar F, Enrich C, Parton RG, Pol A. Caveolin-1 is essential for liver regeneration. Science. 2006 Sep 15;313(5793):1628–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Richards SA, Hollerton JC. Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Holzinger A, Ziefle M, Röcker C, editors. Pervasive Health: State-of-the-art and Beyond. London: Springer; 2014. XI, 365 p. 114 illus. (Human–Computer Interaction Series).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lee D, Choi K. Energy-Efficient Partitioning of Hybrid Caches in Multi-core Architecture. In: Claesen L, Sanz-Pascual M-T, Reis R, Sarmiento-Reyes A, editors. VLSI-SoC: Internet of Things Foundations: 22nd IFIP WG 105/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI-SoC 2014, Playa del Carmen, Mexico, October 6-8, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 58–74. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Medical Library Association.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Japan May Offer America Free Maglev Train Technology [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/japan-may-offer-america-free-maglev-train-technology/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Actions Taken or Needed To Curb Widespread Abuse of the Citizens Band Radio Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Oct. Report No.: GGD-75-88.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Litt D. Social networking sites and adolescent alcohol use: The role of social images, social norms, and social comparison [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
McKINLEY JC Jr. Man’s Murder Conviction Set Aside at D.A.’s Request. New York Times. 2017 Apr 18;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Medical Library Association
AbbreviationJ. Med. Libr. Assoc.
ISSN (print)1536-5050
ISSN (online)1558-9439
ScopeHealth Informatics
Library and Information Sciences

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