How to format your references using the American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Greaves JS. Disks around stars and the growth of planetary systems. Science 2005;307:68–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Muotri AR, Gage FH. Generation of neuronal variability and complexity. Nature 2006;441:1087–93.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Baluska F, Volkmann D, Barlow PW. Cell bodies in a cage. Nature 2004;428:371.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Jain M, Arvanitis C, Chu K, Dewey W, Leonhardt E, Trinh M, et al. Sustained loss of a neoplastic phenotype by brief inactivation of MYC. Science 2002;297:102–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Yoder CH, Leber PA, Thomsen MW. The Bridge to Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Gong Z, Luo X, Chen J, Lei J, Wang FL, editors. Web Information Systems and Mining: International Conference, WISM 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 24-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. vol. 6987. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Merli G. The transformation of the business model: business modelling. In: Cinquini L, Minin AD, Varaldo R, editors. New Business Models and Value Creation: A Service Science Perspective, Milano: Springer; 2013, p. 67–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Ancient Cave Art Records Fascinating Evolution Of European Bison. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-cave-art-records-fascinating-evolution-of-european-bison/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Federal Motor Vehicles: Agencies’ Progress in Meeting Expenditure Control Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Morgan AJ. Analyzing Red and Gray Stages of Bark Beetle Attack in the San Bernardino National Forest Using Remote Sensing. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. 911 Call Is Held as Evidence If Victim Cannot Testify. New York Times 2006:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)0196-0709
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

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