How to format your references using the American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Campbell M. Staying power. Nature 2007;446:468.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Ramirez G, Beilock SL. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom. Science 2011;331:211–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Post DM, Pace ML, Hairston NG Jr. Ecosystem size determines food-chain length in lakes. Nature 2000;405:1047–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Qi M, Lidorikis E, Rakich PT, Johnson SG, Joannopoulos JD, Ippen EP, et al. A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects. Nature 2004;429:538–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Morag N. Comparative Homeland Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Gustafson SJ. Mathematical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Sahri S, Ouziri M, Benbernou S. Summary-Based Pattern Tableaux Generation for Conditional Functional Dependencies in Distributed Data. In: Decker H, Lhotská L, Link S, Spies M, Wagner RR, editors. Database and Expert Systems Applications: 25th International Conference, DEXA 2014, Munich, Germany, September 1-4, 2014. Proceedings, Part I, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Animal Rights Activists Free Captive Penguin Into The Ocean, Probably Resulting In Its Death. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/animal-rights-activists-free-captive-penguin-into-the-ocean-probably-resulting-in-its-death/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Competitiveness: Federal Laws and Policies Affect Railroad Competitiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Thornsberry JL. Freshman transition and its effectiveness on student success as measured by improved attendance, improved grades, decreased discipline referrals, and decreased dropout rate. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Vecsey G. Mets Trot Out Reliever Of Last Resort. New York Times 2010:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)0196-0709
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

Other styles