How to format your references using the American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Angerer P. Graduate journal: seeking perspective. Nature 2004;427:660.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gomes CP, Selman B. Computer science. Satisfied with physics. Science 2002;297:784–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Lee J-Y, Tang CY, Huo F. Fabrication of porous matrix membrane (PMM) using metal-organic framework as green template for water treatment. Sci Rep 2014;4:3740.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Malin MC, Edgett KS, Posiolova LV, McColley SM, Dobrea EZN. Present-day impact cratering rate and contemporary gully activity on Mars. Science 2006;314:1573–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Clark G. The Making of a World City. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Ghosh M, Sarkar D, Roy BC, editors. Diversification of Agriculture in Eastern India. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Gargaud M, Martin H, López-García P, Montmerle T, Pascal R. The Late Heavy Bombardment. In: Martin H, López-García P, Montmerle T, Pascal R, editors. Young Sun, Early Earth and the Origins of Life: Lessons for Astrobiology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 155–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Boats and Blue Whales Collide in Waters off California. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/boats-and-blue-whales-collide-waters-california/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The Federal Weather Program Must Have Stronger Central Direction. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Coggin LL. Creating discourses of possibility: Storying between the real and the imagined to negotiate rural lives in two elementary classrooms. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Mele C, Stevens M. Bruce Hampton, 70, Jam-Band Patriarch. New York Times 2017:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)0196-0709
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

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