How to format your references using the American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris N. Immunology: Chronic effects of acute infections. Nature 2015;526:509–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman BC, Yamamoto KR. Disassembly of transcriptional regulatory complexes by molecular chaperones. Science 2002;296:2232–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai BS, Chadha A, Cook B. The stum gene is essential for mechanical sensing in proprioceptive neurons. Science 2014;343:1256–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bao L, Wang W, Meyer N, Liu Y, Zhang C, Wang K, et al. Quantum corrections crossover and ferromagnetism in magnetic topological insulators. Sci Rep 2013;3:2391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller MB. Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Zhang H. Fuzzy Modeling and Fuzzy Control. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Teichler U, Arimoto A, Cummings WK. Research and Teaching: The Changing Views and Activities of the Academic Profession. In: Arimoto A, Cummings WK, editors. The Changing Academic Profession: Major Findings of a Comparative Survey, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013, p. 117–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. Astronomers Watch The Same Star Explode Over And Over Again Thanks To Gravitational Lensing. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School District Claim to Department of Air Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkins D. The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. From 1687, Early Sounds in All Their Vibrancy. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery
AbbreviationAm. J. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)0196-0709

Other styles