How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atkinson, Quentin D. 2011. “Phonemic Diversity Supports a Serial Founder Effect Model of Language Expansion from Africa.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6027): 346–349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krishnamurthy, Harini, and Eric Gouaux. 2012. “X-Ray Structures of LeuT in Substrate-Free Outward-Open and Apo Inward-Open States.” Nature 481 (7382): 469–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanner, Christian, Carine Manca, and Samuel Leutwyler. 2003. “Probing the Threshold to H Atom Transfer along a Hydrogen-Bonded Ammonia Wire.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5651): 1736–1739.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
George, Dileep, Wolfgang Lehrach, Ken Kansky, Miguel Lázaro-Gredilla, Christopher Laan, Bhaskara Marthi, Xinghua Lou, et al. 2017. “A Generative Vision Model That Trains with High Data Efficiency and Breaks Text-Based CAPTCHAs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 358 (6368).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). 2011. Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koide, Naoyuki, ed. 2014. The Liquid Crystal Display Story: 50 Years of Liquid Crystal R&D That Lead The Way to the Future. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Shilov, Valery V., and Sergey A. Silantiev. 2016. “‘Machines à Comparer Les Idées’ of Semen Korsakov: First Step Towards AI.” In International Communities of Invention and Innovation: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference on the History of Computing, HC 2016, Brooklyn, NY, USA, May 25-29, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Arthur Tatnall and Christopher Leslie, 71–86. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Scientists Have Found The Best Way To Treat A Jellyfish Sting, And No, It’s Not Pee.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects. RCED-97-47. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song, Hyun-Jin. 2014. “Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, John. 2017. “Waiting.” New York Times, April 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Atkinson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Atkinson 2011; Krishnamurthy and Gouaux 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krishnamurthy and Gouaux 2012)
  • Three authors: (Tanner, Manca, and Leutwyler 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (George et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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