How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, J. 2000. “AIDS MEETING: South African Leader Declines to Join the Chorus on HIV and AIDS.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5477): 222a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillon, J., and D. Yakir. 2001. “Influence of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Terrestrial Vegetation on the 18O Content of Atmospheric CO2.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5513): 2584–2587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sorenson, Michael D., Kristina M. Sefc, and Robert B. Payne. 2003. “Speciation by Host Switch in Brood Parasitic Indigobirds.” Nature 424 (6951): 928–931.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bernard, Aurélien, Christophe Lécuyer, Peggy Vincent, Romain Amiot, Nathalie Bardet, Eric Buffetaut, Gilles Cuny, et al. 2010. “Regulation of Body Temperature by Some Mesozoic Marine Reptiles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5984): 1379–1382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, Michael H. 2003. Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marinello, Francesco, Daniele Passeri, and Enrico Savio, eds. 2013. Acoustic Scanning Probe Microscopy. NanoScience and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rouan, Daniel. 2011. “Ablation.” In Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, edited by Muriel Gargaud, Ricardo Amils, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Henderson James (jim) Cleaves, William M. Irvine, Daniele L. Pinti, and Michel Viso, 3–3. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Meteorites Show How Dry Mars Really Is.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: Cost Estimates Related to TSA Funding of Checked Baggage Screening Systems at Los Angeles and Ontario Airports. GAO-07-445. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patel, Dhwani S. 2017. “GoSchoolPro: A Web Portal for the Students Using MVC Architecture and ASP.NET Framework.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich, Nathaniel. 2014. “The New Origin of the Species.” New York Times, February 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen 2000; Gillon and Yakir 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gillon and Yakir 2001)
  • Three authors: (Sorenson, Sefc, and Payne 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bernard et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles