How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCook, Alison. 2011. “Education: Rethinking PhDs.” Nature 472 (7343): 280–282.
A journal article with 2 authors
Overpeck, Jonathan, and Bradley Udall. 2010. “Climate Change. Dry Times Ahead.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5986): 1642–1643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martill, David M., Helmut Tischlinger, and Nicholas R. Longrich. 2015. “EVOLUTION. A Four-Legged Snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6246): 416–419.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, M. S., Y. T. Kwon, M. Li, J. Peng, R. M. Friedlander, and L. H. Tsai. 2000. “Neurotoxicity Induces Cleavage of P35 to P25 by Calpain.” Nature 405 (6784): 360–364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simpkins, C. Alexander, and Annellen M. Simpkins. 2011. Zen Meditation in Psychotherapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dunworth, Katie, and Grace Zhang, eds. 2014. Critical Perspectives on Language Education: Australia and the Asia Pacific. Vol. 11. Multilingual Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoki, Kunihito, Masahiro Yamaki, and Yuichi Fujimura. 2008. “Optical Control of Chiral Molecular Motors.” In Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science III, edited by See Leang Chin, Pierre Agostini, and Gaetano Ferrante, 93–112. Springer Series in Chemical Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Gravitational Lenses Let Astronomers See Brightest Galaxies Like Never Before.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Vehicle Safety: Enhanced Project Management of New Information Technology Could Help Improve NHTSA’s Oversight of Safety Defects. GAO-16-312. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray, Earl. 2012. “California Community College Athletic Directors Lived Experience and Perceptions about Financing Issues with Athletic Programs.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2006. “Putting the Pan in Pan-American.” New York Times, January 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCook 2011).
This sentence cites two references (McCook 2011; Overpeck and Udall 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Overpeck and Udall 2010)
  • Three authors: (Martill, Tischlinger, and Longrich 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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