How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shonkoff, Jack P. 2011. “Protecting Brains, Not Simply Stimulating Minds.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6045): 982–983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thrall, Peter H., and Jeremy J. Burdon. 2003. “Evolution of Virulence in a Plant Host-Pathogen Metapopulation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5613): 1735–1737.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell, Amir, Ping Wei, and Wendell A. Lim. 2015. “Oscillatory Stress Stimulation Uncovers an Achilles’ Heel of the Yeast MAPK Signaling Network.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6266): 1379–1383.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Montufar-Solis, Dina, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Niyati Nakra, Jeremy S. Schaefer, and John R. Klein. 2014. “Hematopoietic Not Systemic Impairment of Roquin Expression Accounts for Intestinal Inflammation in Roquin-Deficient Mice.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett, Anthony H., and Jenny Grice. 2011. New Mechanisms in Glucose Control. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rehm, Georg, and Hans Uszkoreit, eds. 2012. The Icelandic Language in the Digital Age. White Paper Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Krauss, Werner. 2015. “Anthropology in the Anthropocene: Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Interdisciplinary Research.” In Grounding Global Climate Change: Contributions from the Social and Cultural Sciences, edited by Heike Greschke and Julia Tischler, 59–76. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Cosmic Lighthouse Disappears From View.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. The Upcoming Transition: GAO’s Efforts to Assist the 111th Congress and the Next Administration. GAO-08-1174T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Komatsuzaki, Takuji. 2012. “Borrowing Constraints and the Business Cycle in Emerging Markets.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Alice Lesch. 1999. “For Employed Moms, the Pinnacle Of Stress Comes After Work Ends.” New York Times, June 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shonkoff 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Shonkoff 2011; Thrall and Burdon 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thrall and Burdon 2003)
  • Three authors: (Mitchell, Wei, and Lim 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Montufar-Solis et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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