How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Urnov, Fyodor D. 2014. “Biological Techniques: Edit the Genome to Understand It.” Nature 513 (7516): 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kmita, Marie, and Denis Duboule. 2003. “Organizing Axes in Time and Space; 25 Years of Colinear Tinkering.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5631): 331–333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prosser, Benjamin L., Christopher W. Ward, and W. J. Lederer. 2011. “X-ROS Signaling: Rapid Mechano-Chemo Transduction in Heart.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6048): 1440–1445.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Polacek, N., M. Gaynor, A. Yassin, and A. S. Mankin. 2001. “Ribosomal Peptidyl Transferase Can Withstand Mutations at the Putative Catalytic Nucleotide.” Nature 411 (6836): 498–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, Shu-Lin. 2012. Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Nanostructures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Indulska, Jadwiga, Jianhua Ma, Laurence T. Yang, Theo Ungerer, and Jiannong Cao, eds. 2007. Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 4th International Conference, UIC 2007, Hong Kong, China, July 11-13, 2007. Proceedings. Vol. 4611. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fuentes, Rubén, Jorge J. Gómez-Sanz, and Juan Pavón. 2006. “Requirements Elicitation for Agent-Based Applications.” In Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VI: 6th International Workshop, AOSE 2005, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 25, 2005. Revised and Invited Papers, edited by Jörg P. Müller and Franco Zambonelli, 40–53. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “US Navy Sonar Found To Breach Whale Protection Laws.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. IRS Modernization: Business Practice, Performance Management, and Information Technology Challenges. T-GGD/AIMD-00-144. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden, Andrew. 2012. “Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers’ Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Frank. 1984. “STATUE REDEDICATED.” New York Times, November 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Urnov 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Urnov 2014; Kmita and Duboule 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kmita and Duboule 2003)
  • Three authors: (Prosser, Ward, and Lederer 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Polacek et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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