How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hayes, John M. 2011. “Geochemistry. Earth’s Redox History.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6063): 1654–1655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wculek, Stefanie K., and Ilaria Malanchi. 2015. “Neutrophils Support Lung Colonization of Metastasis-Initiating Breast Cancer Cells.” Nature 528 (7582): 413–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andreae, Meinrat O., Chris D. Jones, and Peter M. Cox. 2005. “Strong Present-Day Aerosol Cooling Implies a Hot Future.” Nature 435 (7046): 1187–1190.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Koster, Daniel A., Komaraiah Palle, Elisa S. M. Bot, Mary-Ann Bjornsti, and Nynke H. Dekker. 2007. “Antitumour Drugs Impede DNA Uncoiling by Topoisomerase I.” Nature 448 (7150): 213–217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer, Andreas. 2012. Der Perfekte Tipp. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Correa, José R., Alejandro Hevia, and Marcos Kiwi, eds. 2006. LATIN 2006: Theoretical Informatics: 7th Latin American Symposium, Valdivia, Chile, March 20-24, 2006. Proceedings. Vol. 3887. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tuchscherer, Andreas. 2005. “Dynamical Configuration of Transparent Optical Telecommunication Networks.” In Operations Research Proceedings 2004: Selected Papers of the Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (GOR). Jointly Organized with the Netherlands Society for Operations Research (NGB) Tilburg, September 1–3, 2004, edited by Hein Fleuren, Dick Den Hertog, and Peter Kort, 25–32. Operations Research Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “Take This Test To See How You Perceive Color.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Finance: Observations on the Current FAA Funding Structure’s Support for Aviation Activities, Issues Affecting Future Costs, and Proposed Funding Changes. GAO-07-1163T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge, Maldonado Higinio. 2004. “Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
ROBERT KELLY; Robert Kelly is a poet who teaches literature, and writing at Bard College. 1990. “‘I’D RATHER BE A GREAT BAD POET.’” New York Times, February 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hayes 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hayes 2011; Wculek and Malanchi 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wculek and Malanchi 2015)
  • Three authors: (Andreae, Jones, and Cox 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Koster et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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