How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smetacek, Victor. 2002. “Balance: Mind-Grasping Gravity.” Nature 415 (6871): 481.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Oers, Nicolai S. C., and Zhijian J. Chen. 2005. “Cell Biology. Kinasing and Clipping down the NF-Kappa B Trail.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5718): 65–66.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis, K. J., L. Gillson, and T. M. Brncic. 2004. “Ecology. How ‘virgin’ Is Virgin Rainforest?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5669): 402–403.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lyapina, S., G. Cope, A. Shevchenko, G. Serino, T. Tsuge, C. Zhou, D. A. Wolf, N. Wei, A. Shevchenko, and R. J. Deshaies. 2001. “Promotion of NEDD-CUL1 Conjugate Cleavage by COP9 Signalosome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5520): 1382–1385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Henry H. 2011. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Xia, Ying, ed. 2015. Neural Functions of the Delta-Opioid Receptor. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jackson, Scott I. 2010. “Deflagration Phenomena in Energetic Materials: An Overview.” In Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, Vol. 5: Non-Shock Initiation of Explosives, edited by B. W. Asay, 245–292. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Big Questions About Risk Assessment Of Nanomaterials.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Governmentwide Strategy Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs. GAO-13-529T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, Hao. 2017. “Improvement of Compressive Strength of Oil Well Cement by Agitation.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2001. “Salvage Teams Begin to Raise Russian Sub.” New York Times, October 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smetacek 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smetacek 2002; van Oers and Chen 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Oers and Chen 2005)
  • Three authors: (Willis, Gillson, and Brncic 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lyapina et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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