How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Standfuss, Jörg. 2015. “Structural Biology. Viral Chemokine Mimicry.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6226): 1071–1072.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunter, C. A., and P. C. Mayers. 2001. “Knot Tied around an Octahedral Metal Centre.” Nature 411 (6839): 763.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rideout, W. M., 3rd, K. Eggan, and R. Jaenisch. 2001. “Nuclear Cloning and Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Genome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5532): 1093–1098.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ramsuran, Veron, Vivek Naranbhai, Amir Horowitz, Ying Qi, Maureen P. Martin, Yuko Yuki, Xiaojiang Gao, et al. 2018. “Elevated HLA-A Expression Impairs HIV Control through Inhibition of NKG2A-Expressing Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 359 (6371): 86–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kario, Kazuomi. 2015. Essential Manual of 24 Hour Blood Pressure Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gu, Tingyue, ed. 2013. Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Schade, Rudiger, and Pablo Anibal Chacana. 2007. “Livetin Fractions (IgY).” In Bioactive Egg Compounds, edited by Rainer Huopalahti, Rosina López-Fandiño, Marc Anton, and Rüdiger Schade, 25–32. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Khoe-San People Have Gene Variant That Reduces Pregnancy Complications.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. Costly Requirements for Certain Control Towers, Navigation Aids, and Airport Lights. B-164497. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Takele, Tsegaye. 2003. “Confinement Mechanisms in Quantum Chromodynamics.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “Johnny Cash Has Now Become the Poet in Black.” New York Times, November 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Standfuss 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Standfuss 2015; Hunter and Mayers 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunter and Mayers 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rideout, Eggan, and Jaenisch 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ramsuran et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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