How to format your references using the Ethics and Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levitin, C. 2000. “New Russian Science Head Named.” Nature 405 (6787): 601.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunauer, Regina, and Brian K. Kennedy. 2015. “Medicine. Progeria Accelerates Adult Stem Cell Aging.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6239): 1093–1094.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira, Erneson A., José S. Andrade Jr, and Hernán A. Makse. 2014. “Large Cities Are Less Green.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4235.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chibotaru, L. F., A. Ceulemans, V. Bruyndoncx, and V. V. Moshchalkov. 2000. “Symmetry-Induced Formation of Antivortices in Mesoscopic Superconductors.” Nature 408 (6814): 833–835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Foote, Matthew, John Hillier, Kirsten Mitchell-Wallace, and Matthew Jones. 2017. Natural Catastrophe Risk Management and Modelling. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Biagini, Francesca. 2006. Elementi Di Probabilità e Statistica. Edited by Massimo Campanino. UNITEXT. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Philip, Venmani Daniel, Yvon Gourhant, and Djamal Zeghlache. 2012. “OpenFlow as an Architecture for E-Node B Virtualization.” In E-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: Third International ICST Conference, AFRICOMM 2011, Zanzibar, Tanzania, November 23-24, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Radu Popescu-Zeletin, Karl Jonas, Idris A. Rai, Roch Glitho, and Adolfo Villafiorita, 49–63. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Social Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “How Do You Get To Mars In Half The Time?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Public Transit: Federal and Transit Agencies Taking Steps to Build Transit Systems’ Resilience but Face Challenges. GAO-15-159. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, Jana. 2010. “What Is Old Is New Again: The Role of Discontinuity in Nostalgia-Related Consumption.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, James R. 2017. “Centuries Later, Delivering a Sibling to Beethoven.” New York Times, April 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levitin 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Levitin 2000; Brunauer and Kennedy 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brunauer and Kennedy 2015)
  • Three authors: (Oliveira, Andrade, and Makse 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chibotaru et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Social Welfare
AbbreviationEthics Soc. Welf.
ISSN (print)1749-6535
ISSN (online)1749-6543
Sociology and Political Science

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