How to format your references using the Biological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mellars P. Going east: new genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science. 2006;313:796–800.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Starr MB, Wang X. Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2160.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mukandavire Z, Smith DL, Morris JG Jr. Cholera in Haiti: reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates. Sci Rep. 2013;3:997.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. O’Hagan D, Schaffrath C, Cobb SL, Hamilton JTG, Murphy CD. Biochemistry: biosynthesis of an organofluorine molecule. Nature. 2002;416:279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Calvello AA. Environmental Alpha. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Kwon T, Lee M-K, Kwon D, editors. Information Security and Cryptology – ICISC 2012: 15th International Conference, Seoul, Korea, November 28-30, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gyurkó LG, Lyons TJ. Efficient and Practical Implementations of Cubature on Wiener Space. In: Crisan D, editor. Stochastic Analysis 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 73–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. People Who Trim Their Pubes Are More Likely To Have An STI [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/people-who-trim-their-pubes-are-more-likely-to-have-an-sti/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Long-Standing Weaknesses in Enterprise Architecture Development Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jul. Report No.: GAO-05-702.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fair CL. Structure of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in the Three Bar Ranch Quadrangle, Roberts Mountains, Eureka County, Nevada [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Caba S. Free Stay in Luxury! (Just Feed the Fish). New York Times. 2015 Jan 2;TR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Research
ISSN (online)0717-6287
Scope

Other styles