How to format your references using the Biological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoskins BJ. Atmospheric science. Climate change at cruising altitude? Science. 2003;301:469–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. O’Brien SJ, Murphy WJ. Genomics. A dog’s breakfast? Science. 2003;301:1854–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Keizer K, Lindenberg S, Steg L. The spreading of disorder. Science. 2008;322:1681–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Webster MA, Kaping D, Mizokami Y, Duhamel P. Adaptation to natural facial categories. Nature. 2004;428:557–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smed J, Hakonen H. Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Nakao K, Minato N, Uemoto S, editors. Innovative Medicine: Basic Research and Development. 1st ed. 2015. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Warren JF. Philippine Typhoons Since the Seventeenth Century. In: Bankoff G, Christensen J, editors. Natural Hazards and Peoples in the Indian Ocean World: Bordering on Danger. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 105–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Research.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. The Black Death May Have Improved Health [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/black-death-may-have-improved-health/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s System of Accounting for Accounts Receivable. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Oct. Report No.: FGMSD-77-89.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Turpin-Padberg S. Effects of Elementary Teacher Preparation and Support on Retention [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. With a Push, Schools Win On Budgets. New York Times. 2006 May 28;LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Research
ISSN (online)0717-6287
Scope

Other styles