How to format your references using the Journal of the Knowledge Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Knowledge Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whiten, A. (2014). Animal behaviour: Incipient tradition in wild chimpanzees. Nature, 514(7521), 178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hittinger, C. T., & Carroll, S. B. (2007). Gene duplication and the adaptive evolution of a classic genetic switch. Nature, 449(7163), 677–681.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, M., Kang, H., & Li, X. (2014). Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam. Scientific reports, 4, 3627.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nanork, P., Paar, J., Chapman, N. C., Wongsiri, S., & Oldroyd, B. P. (2005). Entomology: Asian honeybees parasitize the future dead. Nature, 437(7060), 829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cotarca, L., & Eckert, H. (2005). Phosgenations - A Handbook. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Quinn, P. J., & Wang, X. (Eds.). (2008). Lipids in Health and Disease (Vol. 49). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sato, S. (2008). Development of Coastal Urban Regions with Sustainable Topographical Environments. In K. Hanaki (Ed.), Urban Environmental Management and Technology (pp. 67–87). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 16). Scientists Develop Bionic Pancreas For Type 1 Diabetics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Terminating Federal Helium Refining (No. RCED-95-252R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolasa, A. (2014). Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Countries (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, September 14). Film Series. New York Times, p. C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whiten 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hittinger and Carroll 2007; Whiten 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hittinger and Carroll 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Nanork et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Knowledge Economy
AbbreviationJ. Knowl. Econ.
ISSN (print)1868-7865
ISSN (online)1868-7873
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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