How to format your references using the Journal of the Knowledge Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Knowledge Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2007). Small RNAs: delivering the future. Nature, 450(7172), 1117–1120.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hopkins, R., & Rausher, M. D. (2011). Identification of two genes causing reinforcement in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii. Nature, 469(7330), 411–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ramer, M. S., Priestley, J. V., & McMahon, S. B. (2000). Functional regeneration of sensory axons into the adult spinal cord. Nature, 403(6767), 312–316.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bellstedt, P., Ihle, Y., Wiedemann, C., Kirschstein, A., Herbst, C., Görlach, M., & Ramachandran, R. (2014). Sequential acquisition of multi-dimensional heteronuclear chemical shift correlation spectra with 1H detection. Scientific reports, 4, 4490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai, C. S. (2006). Biomacromolecules. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Harper, R., Rauterberg, M., & Combetto, M. (Eds.). (2006). Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2006: 5th International Conference, Cambridge, UK, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 4161). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stadtmüller, S., Cardoso, J., & Junghans, M. (2015). Service Semantics. In J. Cardoso, H. Fromm, S. Nickel, G. Satzger, R. Studer, & C. Weinhardt (Eds.), Fundamentals of Service Systems (pp. 137–178). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 10). Dogs Evolved To Eat Human Scraps As We Started Farming. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Data-Driven Oversight Could Better Target High Risk Carriers (No. GAO-15-433T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Senaga, K. A. (2016). Tasteless, cheap, and southern? The rise and decline of the farm-raised catfish industry (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, October 26). Film Series. New York Times, p. C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Blow 2007; Hopkins and Rausher 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hopkins and Rausher 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bellstedt et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Knowledge Economy
AbbreviationJ. Knowl. Econ.
ISSN (print)1868-7865
ISSN (online)1868-7873
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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