How to format your references using the Journal of the Knowledge Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Knowledge Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farah, M. J. (2015). NEUROSCIENCE. The unknowns of cognitive enhancement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6259), 379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, K., & Caterson, B. (2002). Neuroscience. Freeing the bain from the perineuronal net. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5596), 1187–1189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nguyen, T. D., Ehrenfreund, E., & Vardeny, Z. V. (2012). Spin-polarized light-emitting diode based on an organic bipolar spin valve. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6091), 204–209.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xiang, J., Lu, W., Hu, Y., Wu, Y., Yan, H., & Lieber, C. M. (2006). Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors. Nature, 441(7092), 489–493.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzer, S. M. (2015). Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Jackson, M. B., Mookherjee, S., & Hamlin, N. P. (Eds.). (2015). The Perioperative Medicine Consult Handbook (Second Edition.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shreenath, K. N., & Srinivasa, K. G. (2013). Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks. In N. Chaki, N. Meghanathan, & D. Nagamalai (Eds.), Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications (pp. 37–46). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 24). Here’s What Life Will Be Like In 2022, According To IBM. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA’s Modernization Program (No. T-RCED/AIMD-98-93). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez Grijalva, V. M. (2009). Biological and physical-chemical methods for treatment of semiconductor manufacturing effluents (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. (2013, March 3). Bright Lights, Big City (Redux). New York Times, p. ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farah 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Farah 2015; Fox and Caterson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Caterson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiang et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Knowledge Economy
AbbreviationJ. Knowl. Econ.
ISSN (print)1868-7865
ISSN (online)1868-7873
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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