How to format your references using the Journal of the Knowledge Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Knowledge Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nutton, V. (2002). Portraits of science. Logic, learning, and experimental medicine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5556), 800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, F., & Ravetch, J. V. (2011). Inhibitory Fcγ receptor engagement drives adjuvant and anti-tumor activities of agonistic CD40 antibodies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6045), 1030–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Drell, S. D., Shultz, G. P., & Andreasen, S. P. (2012). Nuclear safety. A safer nuclear enterprise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6086), 1236.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wild, P., Farhan, H., McEwan, D. G., Wagner, S., Rogov, V. V., Brady, N. R., et al. (2011). Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6039), 228–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay, R. (2014). Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leuken, R. van, & Sicard, G. (Eds.). (2011). Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 20th International Workshop, PATMOS 2010, Grenoble, France, September 7-10, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6448). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Feierman, J. R. (2009). How Some Major Components of Religion Could Have Evolved by Natural Selection? In E. Voland & W. Schiefenhövel (Eds.), The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior (pp. 51–66). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 16). Here Are All Of The Harmful Effects Sugar Has On Your Body And Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Competition: Issues on Establishing and Using Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (No. NSIAD-88-22). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Acosta, J. (2013). Building bridges: A specialized training program for professionals in school settings to address bullying in LGBTQ youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016, August 29). Feeding Nostalgia With a Remix. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nutton 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Li and Ravetch 2011; Nutton 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Ravetch 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Wild et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Knowledge Economy
AbbreviationJ. Knowl. Econ.
ISSN (print)1868-7865
ISSN (online)1868-7873
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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