How to format your references using the Journal of the Knowledge Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Knowledge Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chandler, V. L. (2010). Paramutation’s properties and puzzles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6004), 628–629.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkman, M. B., & Plutzer, E. (2011). Science education. Defeating creationism in the courtroom, but not in the classroom. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6016), 404–405.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bridgham, J. T., Ortlund, E. A., & Thornton, J. W. (2009). An epistatic ratchet constrains the direction of glucocorticoid receptor evolution. Nature, 461(7263), 515–519.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Singleton, M. R., Dillingham, M. S., Gaudier, M., Kowalczykowski, S. C., & Wigley, D. B. (2004). Crystal structure of RecBCD enzyme reveals a machine for processing DNA breaks. Nature, 432(7014), 187–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone, H., & Holt, E. (2011). Small Animal Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Butenko, S., Gil-Lafuente, J., & Pardalos, P. M. (Eds.). (2010). Optimal Strategies in Sports Economics and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pohl, K.-H. (2016). “Immanent Transcendence” in the Chinese Tradition: Remarks on a Chinese (and Sinological) Controversy. In N. Brown & W. Franke (Eds.), Transcendence, Immanence, and Intercultural Philosophy (pp. 103–123). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 2). Tesla Batteries Might Power Your Home But Stored Fuels Will Still Run the Country. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Review of Training Grant Awarded to the University of California at Los Angeles (No. B-164031(2)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aiken, J. (2009). Virtually a leader: Mitigating process losses through shared team states (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2016, October 15). Saudi-Led Coalition Admits Error in Funeral Bombing in Yemen. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chandler 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Berkman and Plutzer 2011; Chandler 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berkman and Plutzer 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Singleton et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Knowledge Economy
AbbreviationJ. Knowl. Econ.
ISSN (print)1868-7865
ISSN (online)1868-7873
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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