How to format your references using the Journal of The Japanese and International Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of The Japanese and International Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould, J., 2015. Cannabis: 4 big questions. Nature 525, S18.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galitski, V., Spielman, I.B., 2013. Spin-orbit coupling in quantum gases. Nature 494, 49–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hill, E.W., Jobling, M.A., Bradley, D.G., 2000. Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins. Nature 404, 351–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, Sue-Hyun, Choi, J.-H., Lee, N., Lee, H.-R., Kim, J.-I., Yu, N.-K., Choi, S.-L., Lee, Seung-Hee, Kim, H., Kaang, B.-K., 2008. Synaptic protein degradation underlies destabilization of retrieved fear memory. Science 319, 1253–1256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche, T., 2016. Digital Electronics 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Clark, T., Sabharwal, T. (Eds.), 2013. Interventional Radiology Techniques in Ablation, Techniques in Interventional Radiology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Stückler, J., Droeschel, D., Gräve, K., Holz, D., Kläß, J., Schreiber, M., Steffens, R., Behnke, S., 2012. Towards Robust Mobility, Flexible Object Manipulation, and Intuitive Multimodal Interaction for Domestic Service Robots, in: Röfer, T., Mayer, N.M., Savage, J., Saranlı, U. (Eds.), RoboCup 2011: Robot Soccer World Cup XV, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of The Japanese and International Economies.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Who Killed Ötzi The Iceman 5,300 Years Ago? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Army Maintenance: More Effective Implementation of Maintenance Expenditure Limits Needed (No. NSIAD-91-270). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanton, B., 2009. On location: Race and family in the poetry of Sonia Sanchez, June Jordan, and Cathy Song (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Dodgers Crush Cubs, Winning Pennant for the First Time Since 1988. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gould, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Galitski and Spielman, 2013; Gould, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galitski and Spielman, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of The Japanese and International Economies
AbbreviationJ. Jpn. Int. Econ.
ISSN (print)0889-1583
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Political Science and International Relations

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