How to format your references using the Journal of Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wand, A. J. (2001). On the dynamic origins of allosteric activation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5534), 1395.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nilsson, J., & Payne, D. N. (2011). Physics. High-power fiber lasers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6032), 921–922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wible, B., Mervis, J., & Wigginton, N. S. (2014). The global supply chain. Rethinking the global supply chain. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6188), 1100–1103.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Matheu, A., Maraver, A., Klatt, P., Flores, I., Garcia-Cao, I., Borras, C., … Serrano, M. (2007). Delayed ageing through damage protection by the Arf/p53 pathway. Nature, 448(7151), 375–379.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lévy, P. (2013). The Semantic Sphere 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dietel, M. (Ed.). (2007). Targeted Therapies in Cancer (Vol. 176). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Semeraro, G., Basile, P., de Gemmis, M., & Lops, P. (2007). Discovering User Profiles from Semantically Indexed Scientific Papers. In B. Berendt, A. Hotho, D. Mladenic, & G. Semeraro (Eds.), From Web to Social Web: Discovering and Deploying User and Content Profiles: Workshop on Web Mining, WebMine 2006, Berlin, Germany, September 18, 2006. Revised Selected and Invited Papers (pp. 61–81). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Individual Differences.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 27). Tony Hawk Tries Out Some Weightless Skateboarding On “The Vomit Comet.” Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Additional Costs to Government: Reflagging Kuwaiti Ships and Protecting Them in the Persian Gulf (No. NSIAD-88-9FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghafoori, E. (2014). Wavelet transform and neural network (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, J. (2014, July 23). Police Study Use of Force; May Issue More Tasers. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wand, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Nilsson & Payne, 2011; Wand, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nilsson & Payne, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Wible, Mervis, & Wigginton, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Matheu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Individual Differences
AbbreviationJ. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1614-0001
ISSN (online)2151-2299
ScopeBiological Psychiatry
General Psychology

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