How to format your references using the Journal of Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsay, Y.-F. (2014). Plant science: How to switch affinity. Nature, 507(7490), 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rhee, H. S., & Pugh, B. F. (2012). Genome-wide structure and organization of eukaryotic pre-initiation complexes. Nature, 483(7389), 295–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luhmann, H. J., Kirischuk, S., & Kilb, W. (2014). Comment on “Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6201), 1130.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shafiee, H., Lidstone, E. A., Jahangir, M., Inci, F., Hanhauser, E., Henrich, T. J., Kuritzkes, D. R., Cunningham, B. T., & Demirci, U. (2014). Nanostructured optical photonic crystal biosensor for HIV viral load measurement. Scientific Reports, 4, 4116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godwin, W. (2013). International Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Preedy, V. R., & Watson, R. R. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality of Life Measures. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ao, X., Cui, X., & Liu, G. (2014). Implementation of GNSS Attitude Determination Receiver. In J. Sun, W. Jiao, H. Wu, & M. Lu (Eds.), China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings: Volume I (pp. 29–39). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Individual Differences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 9). White Dwarf Seen Tearing Apart A Comet For The First Time. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: Further Improvements Needed to identify and Oversee Poorly Planned and Performing Projects (GAO-07-1211T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kraka, E. K. (2012). Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, D. J., & Eligon, J. (2016, January 14). Rams’ Departure Is Another Blow to St. Louis Area, and a Chance to Shift Priorities. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsay, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Rhee & Pugh, 2012; Tsay, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rhee & Pugh, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Luhmann et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shafiee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Individual Differences
AbbreviationJ. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1614-0001
ISSN (online)2151-2299
ScopeBiological Psychiatry
General Psychology

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