How to format your references using the Journal of Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, R. A. (2005). Biomedicine. The anti-aging sweepstakes: catalase runs for the ROSes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5730), 1875–1876.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chase, J. M., & Leibold, M. A. (2002). Spatial scale dictates the productivity-biodiversity relationship. Nature, 416(6879), 427–430.
A journal article with 3 authors
Packer, C., Pusey, A. E., & Eberly, L. E. (2001). Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5530), 690–693.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lin, C.-W., Zhao, Z., Kim, J., & Huang, J. (2014). Pencil drawn strain gauges and chemiresistors on paper. Scientific Reports, 4, 3812.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, R. H., & Rodrick, G. E. (2005). Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yang, F. (2014). Capturing Connectivity and Causality in Complex Industrial Processes (P. Duan, S. L. Shah, & T. Chen, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Witte, R., Zhang, Y., & Rilling, J. (2007). Empowering Software Maintainers with Semantic Web Technologies. In E. Franconi, M. Kifer, & W. May (Eds.), The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: 4th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, June 3-7, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 37–52). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Individual Differences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, May 23). Ancient Arctic DNA Suggests That Dogs And Wolves Split 40,000 Years Ago. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Vocational Rehabilitation: Better Measures and Monitoring Could Improve the Performance of the VR Program (GAO-05-865). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Das, A. (2013). Optimizing symbol timing, frequency spacing, and SNR estimation for communication systems [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, June 16). Loss to Nationals Brings Reminders of Early Season Demons. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chase & Leibold, 2002; Miller, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chase & Leibold, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Packer et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Individual Differences
AbbreviationJ. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1614-0001
ISSN (online)2151-2299
ScopeBiological Psychiatry
General Psychology

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