How to format your references using the Journal of the Indian Ocean Region citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleppner, D. (2008). Physics. A milestone in time keeping. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1768–1769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, A. L., & Siliciano, R. F. (2014). HIV: Not-so-innocent bystanders. Nature, 505(7484), 492–493.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, S. A., Pen, I., & Griffin, A. S. (2002). Cooperation and competition between relatives. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5565), 72–75.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Keren, K., Berman, R. S., Buchstab, E., Sivan, U., & Braun, E. (2003). DNA-templated carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5649), 1380–1382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cross, M., & MacDonald, B. (2008). Nutrition in Institutions. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Jang, I.-K. (Ed.). (2015). Cardiovascular OCT Imaging. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ishida, H., Ide, I., & Murase, H. (2014). Subspace Construction from Artificially Generated Images for Traffic Sign Recognition. In Y.-W. Chen & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Subspace Methods for Pattern Recognition in Intelligent Environment (pp. 83–104). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 10). Earth and Moon Are 60 Million Years Older Than Previously Believed. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Railroad Safety: Engineer Work Shift Length and Schedule Variability (T-RCED-92-68). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selph, C. S. (2015). Origins of Music Programs in Liberal Arts Institutions: The Story of Three Florida Catholic Universities [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2011, February 25). Sanford Sigoloff, 80, Expert at Turnarounds. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleppner, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cox & Siliciano, 2014; Kleppner, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox & Siliciano, 2014)
  • Three authors: (West et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Keren et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Indian Ocean Region
ISSN (print)1948-0881
ISSN (online)1948-108X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

Other styles