How to format your references using the Journal of the Indian Ocean Region citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholls, H. (2015). Conservation biology: Wild at heart. Nature, 528(7583), 474–475.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao, S., & Hegde, R. S. (2014). Cell Biology. Local synthesis and disposal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6210), 701–702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davis, S. P., Finarelli, J. A., & Coates, M. I. (2012). Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature, 486(7402), 247–250.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xu, H., Zhu, X., Hu, Y., Li, Z., Zhang, X., Nie, Q., … Lamont, S. J. (2014). DNA methylome in spleen of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-challenged broilers and integration with mRNA expression. Scientific Reports, 4, 4299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, D. (2012). Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Altenbach, H., & Mikhasev, G. I. (Eds.). (2015). Shell and Membrane Theories in Mechanics and Biology: From Macro- to Nanoscale Structures (Vol. 45). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gómez, N. J. (2016). Urban Quality of Life in Santa Fe Province: Demographic, Social and Territorial Processes Between 1991 and 2010. In G. Tonon (Ed.), Indicators of Quality of Life in Latin America (pp. 109–149). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, June 10). Ancient Genomes Reveal Mass Migrations During the Bronze Age. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Education Regulations: Reasons for Delays in Issuance (No. HRD-91-4BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, P. (2015). A Case Study of the Efficacy of Middle College on Educational Advancement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, August 27). Watching the World, Never Mind the Cars, Go By. New York Times, p. 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholls, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Nicholls, 2015; Shao & Hegde, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shao & Hegde, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Davis, Finarelli, & Coates, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Indian Ocean Region
ISSN (print)1948-0881
ISSN (online)1948-108X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

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