How to format your references using the Journal of the Indian Ocean Region citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolan, J. R. (2005). Marine ecology: different measures of biodiversity. Nature, 433(7024), E9; discussion E9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bednarek, P., & Osbourn, A. (2009). Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928), 746–748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chien, K. R., Moretti, A., & Laugwitz, K.-L. (2004). Development. ES cells to the rescue. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 239–240.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schwartz, M. W., Woods, S. C., Porte, D., Jr, Seeley, R. J., & Baskin, D. G. (2000). Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature, 404(6778), 661–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Picard, F., & Tanguy, C. (2016). Innovations and Techno-ecological Transition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Daithankar, J. (2014). Transportation Management with SAP TM 9.0: A Hands-On Guide to Configuring, Implementing, and Optimizing SAP TM (T. Pandit, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Keck, M. E., & Müller, M. B. (2005). Mutagenesis and Knockout Models: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System. In F. Holsboer & A. Ströhle (Eds.), Anxiety and Anxiolytic Drugs (pp. 113–141). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 30). This Lacewing Bacterium Kills Only Males. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Student Enrollment and Attendance Reports in the Boston Public School System Are Substantially Accurate (HRD-76-146). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Couch, H. C. (2017). Providers’ Acceptance of Smartphone Applications as a Supportive Strategy for Adolescent Asthma [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, May 21). Looking for a Favorite, and Falling Short. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolan, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bednarek & Osbourn, 2009; Dolan, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bednarek & Osbourn, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Chien et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schwartz et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Indian Ocean Region
ISSN (print)1948-0881
ISSN (online)1948-108X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

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