How to format your references using the Journal of the Indian Ocean Region citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greene, M. T. (2000). High achiever. Nature, 407(6807), 947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bezdek, R., & Wendling, R. (2005). Recruiters and industry. Job creation and environmental protection. Nature, 434(7033), 678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, F. G., Davies, R., & Lyne, A. (2012). Bernard Lovell (1913-2012). Nature, 488(7413), 592.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Donev, A., Cisse, I., Sachs, D., Variano, E. A., Stillinger, F. H., Connelly, R., Torquato, S., & Chaikin, P. M. (2004). Improving the density of jammed disordered packings using ellipsoids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5660), 990–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, L. A., & Pagliaro, A. M. (2011). Handbook of Child and Adolescent Drug and Substance Abuse. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Volkmann, C. K. (2010). Entrepreneurship in a European Perspective: Concepts for the Creation and Growth of New Ventures (K. O. Tokarski & M. Grünhagen, Eds.). Gabler.
A chapter in an edited book
Masuko, T., & Souma, K. (2009). Nutritional Physiology of Wild and Domesticated Japanese Sika Deer. In D. R. McCullough, S. Takatsuki, & K. Kaji (Eds.), Sika Deer: Biology and Management of Native and Introduced Populations (pp. 61–82). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 12). Cuba Has A Lung Cancer Vaccine, And Now It Could Be Coming To The USA. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). LOCAL Television Act: Status of Spending for Fiscal Year 2005 (GAO-06-858R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Exel, L. M. (2012). Applying database refactoring techniques to procedural SQL [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. (2015, October 22). Bible Study Group Devolved Into a Lethal Sect. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greene, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bezdek & Wendling, 2005; Greene, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bezdek & Wendling, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Smith et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Donev et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Indian Ocean Region
ISSN (print)1948-0881
ISSN (online)1948-108X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

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