How to format your references using the Journal of the Indian Ocean Region citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shelly, D. R. (2010). Periodic, chaotic, and doubled earthquake recurrence intervals on the deep San Andreas fault. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5984), 1385–1388.
A journal article with 2 authors
Broza, M., & Halpern, M. (2001). Pathogen reservoirs. Chironomid egg masses and Vibrio cholerae. Nature, 412(6842), 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui, M., Emrick, T., & Russell, T. P. (2013). Stabilizing liquid drops in nonequilibrium shapes by the interfacial jamming of nanoparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6157), 460–463.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cowan, M. L., Bruner, B. D., Huse, N., Dwyer, J. R., Chugh, B., Nibbering, E. T. J., … Miller, R. J. D. (2005). Ultrafast memory loss and energy redistribution in the hydrogen bond network of liquid H2O. Nature, 434(7030), 199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell, R. S., & Cosner, C. (2004). Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Adamatzky, A. (Ed.). (2010). Game of Life Cellular Automata. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Veiga, A. (2011). Food Defence and Security: The New Reality. In H. Alpas, S. M. Berkowicz, & I. Ermakova (Eds.), Environmental Security and Ecoterrorism (pp. 39–54). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Indian Ocean Region.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 12). Study Claims Colony Collapse Disorder Caused By Insecticides. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Highway Trust Fund: Possible Impact if It Had Financed All Highway Expenditures (No. RCED-98-78R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, T. (2012). Outsider leadership transitions: A phenomenological study of Army Reserve General Officers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grimes, W. (2015, December 1). Eldar Ryazanov, 88, Dies; Famed Russian Director Was a Master of Satire. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilczek, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Field, 2014; Rowe, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Broza & Halpern, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Cui, Emrick, & Russell, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Walther et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Indian Ocean Region
ISSN (print)1948-0881
ISSN (online)1948-108X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

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