How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cruz, M. 2012. Black holes. Inescapable pull. Introduction. Science 337(6094): 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schafer, R.J., and Moore, T. 2011. Selective attention from voluntary control of neurons in prefrontal cortex. Science 332(6037): 1568–1571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schwartz, J.H., Tattersall, I., and Chi, Z. 2014. Comment on “A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo.” Science 344(6182): 360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, G.C., Wang, Q., Li, S.L., Ai, X.G., and Fan, C.G. 2014. Evidence of multi-step nucleation leading to various crystallization pathways from an Fe-O-Al melt. Sci. Rep. 4: 5082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minenna, M. 2016. The Incomplete Currency: The Future of the Euro and Solutions for the Eurozone. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Yi, C.-C. (Editor). 2013. The Psychological Well-being of East Asian Youth. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Miranda, A.I., and Douglas, S. 2010. Aerosols in the atmosphere. In Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XX. Edited by D.G. Steyn and S.T. Rao. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 427–478.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015, April 30. Why Are Some People Left-Handed? IFLScience. [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for the Federal Approach to Providing and Improving Air Service to Small Communities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alonzo, C.E. 2010. Operation Uniting Families: Family treatment program a grant. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 2017, June 1. Film Series. New York Times: C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cruz 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Schafer and Moore 2011; Cruz 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schafer and Moore 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Zoology
AbbreviationCan. J. Zool.
ISSN (print)0008-4301
ISSN (online)1480-3283
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles