How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clement, B.M. 2004. Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude. Nature 428(6983): 637–640.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiatpongsan, S., and Sipp, D. 2009. Medicine. Monitoring and regulating offshore stem cell clinics. Science 323(5921): 1564–1565.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werner, S.L., Barken, D., and Hoffmann, A. 2005. Stimulus specificity of gene expression programs determined by temporal control of IKK activity. Science 309(5742): 1857–1861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brent, L.J.N., Heilbronner, S.R., Horvath, J.E., Gonzalez-Martinez, J., Ruiz-Lambides, A., Robinson, A.G., Skene, J.H.P., and Platt, M.L. 2013. Genetic origins of social networks in rhesus macaques. Sci. Rep. 3: 1042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulinkovich, O.G. 2015. Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Choi, L., Paek, Y., and Cho, S. (Editors). 2007. Advances in Computer Systems Architecture: 12th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 23-25, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Musarrat, J., Al Khedhairy, A.A., Al-Arifi, S., and Khan, M.S. 2009. Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase in Rhizobium–Legume Symbiosis. In Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement. Edited by M.S. Khan, A. Zaidi, and J. Musarrat. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 63–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017, May 20. Is Talking To Yourself A Sign Of Mental Illness? An Expert Delivers Her Verdict. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Federal Aviation Administration: Preliminary Observations of Potential Air Traffic Control Restructuring Transition Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Engel, S.M. 2016. Proform-antecedent linking in listeners with language impairments and unimpaired listeners. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010, June 29. ‘Mixed Results’ for U.S.; Uncertain Future for Coach. New York Times: B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clement 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Clement 2004; Kiatpongsan and Sipp 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kiatpongsan and Sipp 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Brent et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Zoology
AbbreviationCan. J. Zool.
ISSN (print)0008-4301
ISSN (online)1480-3283
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles