How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. 2000. US geneticists encouraged to play by the book. Nature 404(6778): 530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norvell, A., and McMahon, S.B. 2010. Cell biology. Rise of the rival. Science 327(5968): 964–965.
A journal article with 3 authors
Patt, A.G., Ogallo, L., and Hellmuth, M. 2007. Sustainability. Learning from 10 years of climate outlook forums in Africa. Science 318(5847): 49–50.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hunte, F., Jaroszynski, J., Gurevich, A., Larbalestier, D.C., Jin, R., Sefat, A.S., McGuire, M.A., Sales, B.C., Christen, D.K., and Mandrus, D. 2008. Two-band superconductivity in LaFeAsO0.89F0.11 at very high magnetic fields. Nature 453(7197): 903–905.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano, A. 2015. Liquidity Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Andersen, K.N., Francesconi, E., Grönlund, Å., and Engers, T.M. van (Editors). 2011. Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective: Second International Conference, EGOVIS 2011, Toulouse, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Almeida, J., and Rodaro, E. 2014. Semisimple Synchronizing Automata and the Wedderburn-Artin Theory. In Developments in Language Theory: 18th International Conference, DLT 2014, Ekaterinburg, Russia, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings. Edited by A.M. Shur and M.V. Volkov. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015, November 12. Copper Can Destroy Respiratory Viruses. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Magnet Schools: Information on the Grant Award Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luse, K.M. 2008. Invariants of knots, graphs, and Feynman diagrams. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. 2014, January 9. In the Running, Behind the Scenes. New York Times: E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Wadman 2000; Norvell and McMahon 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Norvell and McMahon 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hunte et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Zoology
AbbreviationCan. J. Zool.
ISSN (print)0008-4301
ISSN (online)1480-3283
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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