How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guthrie, R.D. 2006. New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions. Nature 441(7090): 207–209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Douvris, C., and Ozerov, O.V. 2008. Hydrodefluorination of perfluoroalkyl groups using silylium-carborane catalysts. Science 321(5893): 1188–1190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinson, B.C., Anderson, M.S., and de Vries, R. 2005. Scientists behaving badly. Nature 435(7043): 737–738.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Weiss, B.P., Berdahl, J.S., Elkins-Tanton, L., Stanley, S., Lima, E.A., and Carporzen, L. 2008. Magnetism on the angrite parent body and the early differentiation of planetesimals. Science 322(5902): 713–716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Storhas, W. 2013. Bioverfahrensentwicklung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Faure, G. 2011. The Transantarctic Mountains: Rocks, Ice, Meteorites and Water. Edited ByT.M. Mensing. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Q., Zhang, W., Nogales-Cadenas, R., Lin, J.-R., Cai, Y., and Zhang, Z.D. 2016. From Gene Expression to Disease Phenotypes: Network-Based Approaches to Study Complex Human Diseases. In Transcriptomics and Gene Regulation. Edited by J. Wu. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 115–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, December 19. The US Needs To Improve Its Science Literacy, Says Astronaut Mae Jemison. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Army Deployment: Better Transportation Planning Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray, E. 2012. California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2016, October 20. Oh, Forget That Love Stuff. All You Need Is Selfishness. New York Times: C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guthrie 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Guthrie 2006; Douvris and Ozerov 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Douvris and Ozerov 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Weiss et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Zoology
AbbreviationCan. J. Zool.
ISSN (print)0008-4301
ISSN (online)1480-3283
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles