How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2000. Critics blast US missile defence system as flawed. Nature 404(6780): 799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkovits, B.D., and Mayr, C. 2015. Alternative 3’ UTRs act as scaffolds to regulate membrane protein localization. Nature 522(7556): 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, K.S., Riser, S.C., and Karl, D.M. 2010. Nitrate supply from deep to near-surface waters of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Nature 465(7301): 1062–1065.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moles, A.T., Ackerly, D.D., Webb, C.O., Tweddle, J.C., Dickie, J.B., and Westoby, M. 2005. A brief history of seed size. Science 307(5709): 576–580.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
d’Andria, A., and Gabarret, I. 2017. Building 21st Century Entrepreneurship. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Takehara, K., Fujimoto, M., and Kuwana, M. (Editors). 2016. Systemic Sclerosis. In 1st ed. 2016. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Berube, D.M. 2009. Intuitive Toxicology: The Public Perception of Nanoscience. In Nanotechnology & Society: Current and Emerging Ethical Issues. Edited by F. Allhoff and P. Lin. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 91–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015, July 22. Study Finds That Online Harassers Really Are Losers. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Relocation of Space Shuttle Major Modification Work. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Orbinati, A.G. 2015. Spirituality and learning: An exploration into the understanding of spirituality in adult education. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992, November 28. Clinton Chats With Reagan, Then Heads Out to the Mall. New York Times: 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Berkovits and Mayr 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berkovits and Mayr 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Moles et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Zoology
AbbreviationCan. J. Zool.
ISSN (print)0008-4301
ISSN (online)1480-3283
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles