How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laming, J.M. 2014. Astrophysics: Lopsided stellar death. Nature 506(7488): 298–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
Des Marais, D.L., and Rausher, M.D. 2008. Escape from adaptive conflict after duplication in an anthocyanin pathway gene. Nature 454(7205): 762–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
Syntichaki, P., Troulinaki, K., and Tavernarakis, N. 2007. eIF4E function in somatic cells modulates ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 445(7130): 922–926.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Volkov, I., Banavar, J.R., He, F., Hubbell, S.P., and Maritan, A. 2005. Density dependence explains tree species abundance and diversity in tropical forests. Nature 438(7068): 658–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zauderer, E. 2006. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zheng, J., Mao, S., Midkiff, S.F., and Zhu, H. (Editors). 2010. Ad Hoc Networks: First International Conference, ADHOCNETS 2009, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, September 22-25, 2009. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fokoue, A., Srivatsa, M., and Young, R. 2011. Trust-Based Probabilistic Query Answering. In Web Information System Engineering – WISE 2011: 12th International Conference, Sydney, Australia, October 13-14, 2011. Proceedings. Edited by A. Bouguettaya, M. Hauswirth, and L. Liu. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016, December 7. “Heat Bombs” May Explain Why The Sun’s Outer Atmosphere Is So Hot. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Information Technology: Reform Initiatives Can Help Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, D.E. 2010. How personality traits and job satisfaction influence service quality in housing agencies. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., and Grynbaum, M.M. 2016, August 12. Fox News, in Naming Leaders, Sends Signal: ‘Stay the Course.’ New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laming 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Des Marais and Rausher 2008; Laming 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Des Marais and Rausher 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Volkov et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Zoology
AbbreviationCan. J. Zool.
ISSN (print)0008-4301
ISSN (online)1480-3283
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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