How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bascompte, J. 2009. Disentangling the web of life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325, 416–419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilf, R.J.C. & Dutzler, R. 2009. Structure of a potentially open state of a proton-activated pentameric ligand-gated ion channel. Nature, 457, 115–118.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beatty, C.D., Beirinckx, K. & Sherratt, T.N. 2004. The evolution of müllerian mimicry in multispecies communities. Nature, 431, 63–66.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yoon, J., Jo, S., et al. 2010. GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies. Nature, 465, 329–333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin, T. 2011. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Oxford, UK, Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Ezura, H., Ariizumi, T., Garcia-Mas, J. & Rose, J. (eds). 2016. Functional Genomics and Biotechnology in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae Crops. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnidman, E.A. & MacMillan, W.D. 2016. Transparency: Data Meets Democracy. In: MacMillan, W. D. (ed.) How the Fed Moves Markets: Central Bank Analysis for the Modern Era. New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan US, 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Vegetables Grown On Mars Are Safe To Eat, According To Crop Experiment. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. District of Columbia Public Schools: Status of Fiscal Year 1998 Roof Projects. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, T-AIMD-98-219.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crawford, M.J. 2009. Empire’s Experts: The Politics of Knowledge in Spain’s Royal Monopoly of Quina (1751–1808). Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. 2011. A County In Alabama Puts Off Bankruptcy. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bascompte 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bascompte 2009; Hilf & Dutzler 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hilf & Dutzler 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoon et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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