How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fung, I. 2013. Atmospheric science. A hyperventilating biosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341, 1075–1076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dudin, Y.O. and Kuzmich, A. 2012. Strongly interacting Rydberg excitations of a cold atomic gas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336, 887–889.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tria, F., Pompei, S. and Loreto, V. 2013. Dynamically correlated mutations drive human Influenza A evolution. Scientific reports, 3, 2705.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yan, H., Park, S.H., Finkelstein, G., Reif, J.H. and LaBean, T.H. 2003. DNA-templated self-assembly of protein arrays and highly conductive nanowires. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301, 1882–1884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya, S., Hameed, M.F.O. and Areed, N.F.F. 2016. Computational Liquid Crystal Photonics.
An edited book
Buntine, W., Grobelnik, M., Mladenić, D. and Shawe-Taylor, J. (eds). 2009. Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2009, Bled, Slovenia, September 7-11, 2009, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehmann, K. and Schneider, P.M. 2010. Differences in the Molecular Biology of Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus, Gastric Cardia, and Upper Gastric Third. In: Schneider, P. M. (ed.) Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagogastric Junction. Recent Results in Cancer Research, 65–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015. Watch A Man Play Guitar While Surgeons Remove Tumor From His Brain. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk. GAO-10-549.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holbert, M. 2010. Knowledge Is Power (KIP): Kinship Caregiver Support Group Program Curriculum. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: A Photo Opportunity; Serendipity or Not, Truck Full of Spuds Becomes a Star. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fung 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Dudin and Kuzmich 2012; Fung 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dudin and Kuzmich 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yan et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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