How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paulus, M.P. 2007. Decision-making dysfunctions in psychiatry--altered homeostatic processing? Science (New York, N.Y.), 318, 602–606.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, D.L. and Johnson, S.A.S. 2008. Cell biology. RNA metabolism and oncogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320, 461–462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worrell, B.T., Malik, J.A. and Fokin, V.V. 2013. Direct evidence of a dinuclear copper intermediate in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340, 457–460.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Landsea, C.W., Harper, B.A., Hoarau, K. and Knaff, J.A. 2006. Climate change. Can we detect trends in extreme tropical cyclones? Science (New York, N.Y.), 313, 452–454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frank, P. and Ottoboni, M.A. 2011. The Dose Makes the Poison.
An edited book
Orcutt, J. (ed.). 2013. Earth System Monitoring: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology.
A chapter in an edited book
Sprent, J.I. 2005. Biological Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Angiosperms in Terrestrial Ecosystems. In: BassiriRad, H. (ed.) Nutrient Acquisition by Plants: An Ecological Perspective. Ecological Studies, 89–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2017. Difference Between Neutrinos And Antineutrinos Could Mean A Whole New Physics. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Protest Alleging Agency Did Not Evaluate Proposals Fairly. B-178220.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
So, R.J. 2010. Coolie Democracy: U.S.-China Political and Literary Exchange, 1925-1955. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2009. Putin’s Party Wins in Regional Elections Across Russia. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paulus 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Paulus 2007; Johnson and Johnson 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Johnson 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Landsea et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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