How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gossett, J.M. 2002. Environment. Fishing for microbes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298, 974–975.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Q. & Bachtrog, D. 2012. Sex-specific adaptation drives early sex chromosome evolution in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337, 341–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., Cheng, Y.-C. & Fleming, G.R. 2007. Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 1462–1465.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bouwer, L.M., Crompton, R.P., Faust, E., Hoppe, P. & Pielke, R.A., Jr. 2007. Disaster management. Confronting disaster losses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318, 753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bâzu, M. & Băjenescu, T. 2011. Failure Analysis. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yoshida, T., Kou, G., Skowron, A., Cao, J., Hacid, H. & Zhong, N. (eds). 2013. Active Media Technology: 9th International Conference, AMT 2013, Maebashi, Japan, October 29-31, 2013, Proceedings. Cham, Springer International Publishing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Vande Wouwer, A., Saucez, P. & Vilas, C. 2014. Finite Elements and Spectral Methods. In: Saucez, P. & Vilas, C. (eds) Simulation of ODE/PDE Models with MATLAB®, OCTAVE and SCILAB: Scientific and Engineering Applications. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 203–283.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Aphids Vampirize Ant Larvae. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Challenges Still Facing the U.S. Postal Service. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, T-AIMD-99-86.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, W. 2012. Impacts of Storms and Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Evolution between Two Capes: Onslow Bay, North Carolina. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Arson Suspected In Synagogue Fire. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gossett 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gossett 2002; Zhou & Bachtrog 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou & Bachtrog 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouwer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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