How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weintraub, K. 2014. Vaccines: taking a shot at protection. Nature, 516, S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Qian, H. and Ricklefs, R.E. 2000. Large-scale processes and the Asian bias in species diversity of temperate plants. Nature, 407, 180–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, I.-H., Shin, S. and Choi, T.-L. 2015. Materials science. Building supermicelles from simple polymers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347, 1310–1311.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiménez-Guri, E., Philippe, H., Okamura, B. and Holland, P.W.H. 2007. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317, 116–118.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
George, M.D., Donley, T.G. and Preshaw, P.M. 2014. Ultrasonic Periodontal Debridement.
An edited book
Proulx, T. (ed.). 2011. Experimental Mechanics on Emerging Energy Systems and Materials, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series.
A chapter in an edited book
Angluin, D., Aspnes, J. and Eisenstat, D. 2007. A Simple Population Protocol for Fast Robust Approximate Majority. In: Pelc, A. (ed.) Distributed Computing: 21st International Symposium, DISC 2007, Lemesos, Cyprus, September 24-26, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 20–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016. We Now Know Why ESA’s Schiaparelli Lander Crashed On Mars. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. National Airspace System: Free Flight Tools Show Promise, but Implementation Challenges Remain. GAO-01-932.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheatley, B.A. 2010. Leadership Styles of Healthcare Executives: Comparisons of Transformational, Transactional, and Passive-Avoidant Styles. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. 2017. Losing Her Friends for the Love of Trump. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weintraub 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Qian and Ricklefs 2000; Weintraub 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Qian and Ricklefs 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiménez-Guri et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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