How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bucksbaum, P.H. 2004. Applied physics. X-ray movies of wiggling crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 1691–1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowen, L.E. & Lindquist, S. 2005. Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309, 2185–2189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Syntichaki, P., Troulinaki, K. & Tavernarakis, N. 2007. eIF4E function in somatic cells modulates ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature, 445, 922–926.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lin, Y., Bloodgood, B.L., et al. 2008. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory synapse development by Npas4. Nature, 455, 1198–1204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Der Pijl, P., Solomon, L.K. & Lokitz, J. 2016. How To Design a Better Business. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lupu, M., Kanoulas, E. & Loizides, F. (eds). 2013. Multidisciplinary Information Retrieval: 6th Information Retrieval Facility Conference, IRFC 2013, Limassol, Cyprus, October 7-9, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Muller, M., Gras, R., Appel, R.D., Bienvenut, W.V. & Hochstrasser, D.F. 2005. Signal Traitment and Virtual Images Production (2/2). In: Bienvenut, W. V. (ed.) Acceleration and Improvement of Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 169–188.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2017. Physical Inactivity Is Just As Bad As Genetic Predisposition When It Comes To Developing Dementia. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: Progress Made in Systematic Planning to Guide Key Investment Decisions, but More Work Remains. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, GAO-07-448T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, D.S. 2010. Global Educational Ecosystem: Case Study of a Partnership with K–12 Schools, Community Organizations, and Business. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Krauss, C. 2015. Breakdown at BP Refinery Strains Midwest Gas Prices. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bucksbaum 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bucksbaum 2004; Cowen & Lindquist 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowen & Lindquist 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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