How to format your references using the Criminal Law and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Law and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ueno, Y. (2014). Earth Science. Coping with low ocean sulfate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6210), 703–704.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn, S., & Joyner, A. L. (2005). In vivo analysis of quiescent adult neural stem cells responding to Sonic hedgehog. Nature, 437(7060), 894–897.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Marien, H. (2008). Preparing and motivating behavior outside of awareness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1639.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Takahashi, R.-U., Takeshita, F., Honma, K., Ono, M., Kato, K., & Ochiya, T. (2013). Ribophorin II regulates breast tumor initiation and metastasis through the functional suppression of GSK3β. Scientific reports, 3, 2474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Machner, H. (2005). Einführung in die Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Müller, W. E. G., & Grachev, M. A. (Eds.). (2009). Biosilica in Evolution, Morphogenesis, and Nanobiotechnology: Case Study Lake Baikal (Vol. 47). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jokinen, K., & Wilcock, G. (2015). Modelling User Experience in Human-Robot Interactions. In R. Böck, F. Bonin, N. Campbell, & R. Poppe (Eds.), Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction: Second International Workshop, MA3HMI 2014, Held in Conjunction with INTERSPEECH 2014, Singapore, Singapore, September 14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 45–56). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Law and Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 6). What Is The Biggest Star In The Universe? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). ADP Modernization: IRS’ Tax System Redesign Progress and Plans for the Future (No. IMTEC-88-23BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajagopal, S. (2012). Assessing water management impacts of climate change for a semi-arid watershed in the southwestern US (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hardy, M. (2017, June 17). In Houston, Juneteenth Site Rises From the Ruins. New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ueno 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ahn and Joyner 2005; Ueno 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahn and Joyner 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Takahashi et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Law and Philosophy
ISSN (print)1871-9791
ISSN (online)1871-9805

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