How to format your references using the Criminal Law and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Law and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons, D. (2000). Madame Bovary, c’est moi. Nature, 407(6801), 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singer, P. A., & Daar, A. S. (2001). Harnessing genomics and biotechnology to improve global health equity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5540), 87–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hermans, T. M., Frauenrath, H., & Stellacci, F. (2013). Materials science. Droplets out of equilibrium. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6143), 243–244.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, H., Li, M., Fu, L., Tang, A., & Mann, S. (2013). Controlled assembly of Sb₂S₃ nanoparticles on silica/polymer nanotubes: insights into the nature of hybrid interfaces. Scientific reports, 3, 1336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davidson, P. W., Prasher, V. P., & Janicki, M. P. (2008). Mental Health, Intellectual Disabilities, and the Aging Process. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
James, N. P. (2011). Neritic Carbonate Sediments in a Temperate Realm: Southern Australia. (Y. Bone, Ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Šimberová, S., & Suk, T. (2013). Analysis of Dynamic Processes by Statistical Moments of High Orders. In J. Ruiz-Shulcloper & G. Sanniti di Baja (Eds.), Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis, Computer Vision, and Applications: 18th Iberoamerican Congress, CIARP 2013, Havana, Cuba, November 20-23, 2013, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 33–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Law and Philosophy.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 13). Ship Eating Clams Digest Wood With Gill Microbes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Computer Misuse by the Sigma Corporation, a NASA Contractor (No. PSAD-78-148). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miranda, P. J. (2015). Tightly-coupled sulfur-cycling microbial mats of the White Point hydrothermal vent field, CA: An analog for deep-sea vents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. (2017, July 11). Police Mourn Slain Officer, as Do the Bronx Residents She Served. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons 2000; Singer and Daar 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singer and Daar 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Law and Philosophy
ISSN (print)1871-9791
ISSN (online)1871-9805

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