How to format your references using the Criminal Law and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Law and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fink, D. W., Jr. (2009). FDA regulation of stem cell-based products. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5935), 1662–1663.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo, M.-T., & Lee, W.-C. (2014). Detecting a weak association by testing its multiple perturbations: a data mining approach. Scientific reports, 4, 5081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bristow, C. S., Bailey, S. D., & Lancaster, N. (2000). The sedimentary structure of linear sand dunes. Nature, 406(6791), 56–59.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pawlowski, W. P., Golubovskaya, I. N., Timofejeva, L., Meeley, R. B., Sheridan, W. F., & Cande, W. Z. (2004). Coordination of meiotic recombination, pairing, and synapsis by PHS1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5654), 89–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Klerk, A. (2011). Fischer-Tropsch Refining. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Shen, X., Yu, H., Buford, J., & Akon, M. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Erradi, A., Maheshwari, P., & Tosic, V. (2006). Policy-Driven Middleware for Self-adaptation of Web Services Compositions. In M. van Steen & M. Henning (Eds.), Middleware 2006: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 7th International Middleware Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 27-December 1, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 62–80). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Law and Philosophy.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 23). The White House Starts Twitter Account To Spread Awareness Of Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). 2010 Census: Data Collection Is Under Way, but Reliability of Key Information Technology Systems Remains a Risk (No. GAO-10-567T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, J. I. (2017). Analysis of the role of the Jackson Prairie in prehistoric/protohistoric settlement patterns using survey data from the Bienville National Forest (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, March 11). For St. Patrick’s Day Parade 1855, Snow on the Clover. New York Times, p. C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fink 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Fink 2009; Lo and Lee 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lo and Lee 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pawlowski et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Law and Philosophy
ISSN (print)1871-9791
ISSN (online)1871-9805

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