How to format your references using the Criminal Law and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Law and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edelman, G. M. (2007). Learning in and from brain-based devices. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1103–1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomita, M., & Kami, K. (2012). Cancer. Systems biology, metabolomics, and cancer metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6084), 990–991.
A journal article with 3 authors
Körtner, G., Brigham, R. M., & Geiser, F. (2000). Winter torpor in a large bird. Nature, 407(6802), 318.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Grogg, M. W., Call, M. K., Okamoto, M., Vergara, M. N., Del Rio-Tsonis, K., & Tsonis, P. A. (2005). BMP inhibition-driven regulation of six-3 underlies induction of newt lens regeneration. Nature, 438(7069), 858–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dorronsoro, B., Ruiz, P., Danoy, G., Pigné, Y., & Bouvry, P. (2014). Evolutionary Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kitamura, Y., Edwards, D. B., Sitha, C., & Williams, J. H. (Eds.). (2016). The Political Economy of Schooling in Cambodia: Issues of Quality and Equity. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Steiger, H.-J., Etminan, N., & Hänggi, D. (2015). Dissection of the Aneurysm and Principles of Clipping. In N. Etminan & D. Hänggi (Eds.), Microsurgical Brain Aneurysms: Illustrated Concepts and Cases (pp. 57–66). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Law and Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 3). Dominance-Asserting “Power Poses” Are Probably As Ineffective As They Are Awkward. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). TSA Acquisitions: Further Actions Needed to Improve Efficiency of Screening Technology Test and Evaluation (No. GAO-16-117). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchison, D. (2017). An Examination of Educational Equity: The Impact of Accountability and Finance Reform Policies (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, August 13). A Parent’s Small Moment of Grace. New York Times, p. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edelman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Edelman 2007; Tomita and Kami 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomita and Kami 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Grogg et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Law and Philosophy
ISSN (print)1871-9791
ISSN (online)1871-9805

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