How to format your references using the Criminal Law and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Law and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFadden, P. (2002). Tech.Sight. Biosensors. Broadband biodetection: Holmes on a chip. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5589), 2075–2076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shindo, A., & Wallingford, J. B. (2014). PCP and septins compartmentalize cortical actomyosin to direct collective cell movement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6171), 649–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorsen, T., Maerkl, S. J., & Quake, S. R. (2002). Microfluidic large-scale integration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5593), 580–584.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Prosperi, M., Veras, N., Azarian, T., Rathore, M., Nolan, D., Rand, K., et al. (2013). Molecular epidemiology of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomic era: a cross-sectional study. Scientific reports, 3, 1902.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mauthe, A., & Thomas, P. (2005). Professional Content Management Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bagirov, A. (2014). Introduction to Nonsmooth Optimization: Theory, Practice and Software. (N. Karmitsa & M. M. Mäkelä, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, J., Lu, Y., & Lundqvist, K. (2014). A TASM-Based Requirements Validation Approach for Safety-Critical Embedded Systems. In L. George & T. Vardanega (Eds.), Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2014: 19th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Paris, France, June 23-27, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 43–57). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Law and Philosophy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, September 4). No, That Incredible Atlas V Launch Was Not A UFO. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). FTA New York Mass Transit Grants: False Statements to FTA Grantee/Grantee Violations of Contracting Policy (No. OSI-92-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galyer, D. L. (2019). The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016, August 25). Review: ‘Dying to Know’ How to Turn on, Tune in, Drop Out. New York Times, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McFadden 2002).
This sentence cites two references (McFadden 2002; Shindo and Wallingford 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shindo and Wallingford 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Prosperi et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Law and Philosophy
ISSN (print)1871-9791
ISSN (online)1871-9805

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