How to format your references using the Journal of the Franklin Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Franklin Institute. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, An electoral lecture, Nature. 420 (2002) 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Marti, J. Kerridge, Planetary science. Nitrogen in the solar system, Science. 328 (2010) 1112–1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Lape, D. Colquhoun, L.G. Sivilotti, On the nature of partial agonism in the nicotinic receptor superfamily, Nature. 454 (2008) 722–727.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Xiang, C. Han, J. Zhang, W. Chen, Gap states assisted MoO3 nanobelt photodetector with wide spectrum response, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Narayanasamy, Postharvest Pathogens and Disease Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
B. Shen, Modelling Rock Fracturing Processes: A Fracture Mechanics Approach Using FRACOD, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Moukalled, L. Mangani, M. Darwish, The Finite Volume Method, in: L. Mangani, M. Darwish (Eds.), The Finite Volume Method in Computational Fluid Dynamics: An Advanced Introduction with OpenFOAM® and Matlab, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 103–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Blog post
J. Davis, Viruses May Be More Infectious In The Morning Than Later In The Day, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airline Competition: Options For Addressing Financial and Competition Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Huffman, Teacher and administrator perceptions of a balanced school calendar and its effects on students in poverty, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Victor, Dehydration Death at Jail Is Scrutinized, New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Franklin Institute
AbbreviationJ. Franklin Inst.
ISSN (print)0016-0032
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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