How to format your references using the Journal of the Franklin Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Franklin Institute. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.J. Nestler, Neurobiology. Total recall-the memory of addiction, Science. 292 (2001) 2266–2267.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.B. Karki, L.P. Stixrude, Viscosity of MgSiO3 liquid at Earth’s mantle conditions: implications for an early magma ocean, Science. 328 (2010) 740–742.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Monthoux, D. Pines, G.G. Lonzarich, Superconductivity without phonons, Nature. 450 (2007) 1177–1183.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Dai, Chemically derived, ultrasmooth graphene nanoribbon semiconductors, Science. 319 (2008) 1229–1232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lombard, SolidWorks® 2011 Parts Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2011.
An edited book
T. Huang, Z. Zeng, C. Li, C.S. Leung, eds., Neural Information Processing: 19th International Conference, ICONIP 2012, Doha, Qatar, November 12-15, 2012, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
F.H. Al Zadjali, Shared Writing in Omani Young Learner Classrooms, in: A. Ahmed, H. Abouabdelkader (Eds.), Teaching EFL Writing in the 21st Century Arab World: Realities and Challenges, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 69–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Collection Of Artwork Commissioned By Gates Foundation Reminds Us Of The Importance Of Vaccination, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Tuition Continues to Rise, but Patterns Vary by Institution Type, Enrollment, and Educational Expenditures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Strong, Investigation and Characterization of Features on a Cretaceous-Paleogene Seismic Horizon in Northern Louisiana, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kanter, N. Kitsantonis, Tough Act to Follow, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Franklin Institute
AbbreviationJ. Franklin Inst.
ISSN (print)0016-0032
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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