How to format your references using the Journal of the Franklin Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Franklin Institute. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Tegmark, Measuring spacetime: from the big bang to black holes, Science. 296 (2002) 1427–1433.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.R. Kornack, P. Rakic, Cell proliferation without neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex, Science. 294 (2001) 2127–2130.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.G. Hastings, J.C. Jarvis, E.J. Steig, Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen isotopes of ice-core nitrate, Science. 324 (2009) 1288.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Rabinowitz, E. Helin, K. Lawrence, S. Pravdo, A reduced estimate of the number of kilometre-sized near-Earth asteroids, Nature. 403 (2000) 165–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Bécherrawy, Electromagnetism, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Y. Wu, ed., Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Asatiani, A Dynamic Conceptual Model for the Linguistic Structuring of Space: Georgian Preverbs, in: P. Bosch, D. Gabelaia, J. Lang (Eds.), Logic, Language, and Computation: 7th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2007, Tbilisi, Georgia, October 1-5, 2007. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 38–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Keep Fidgeting, It Might Cancel Out The Negative Effects Of Prolonged Sitting, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program: Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Administration and Oversight, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Grandon, The Distribution of Apiaceae in Lafayette and St. Martin Parishes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kelly, Figuring Out Who Really Had the Last Word in the Bush White House, New York Times. (2013) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Franklin Institute
AbbreviationJ. Franklin Inst.
ISSN (print)0016-0032
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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