How to format your references using the Journal of the Formosan Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goedert M. NEURODEGENERATION. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases: The prion concept in relation to assembled Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein. Science. 2015 Aug 7;349(6248):1255555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otto SP, Jarne P. Evolution. Haploids--hapless or happening? Science. 2001 Jun 29;292(5526):2441–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshimura K, Onda Y, Fukushima T. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 31;4:4514.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Juodkazis S, Mukai N, Wakaki R, Yamaguchi A, Matsuo S, Misawa H. Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces. Nature. 2000 Nov 9;408(6809):178–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snape S. Ancient Egyptian Tombs. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Kumar S, Snooks H, editors. Telenursing. London: Springer; 2011. XIV, 202 p. (Health Informatics).
A chapter in an edited book
Ru’yuan L, Zhi’an W, Li’yan, Xuhui W. Internet-Based Electronic Toll Collection System Using WiFi Technology. In: Dai M, editor. Innovative Computing and Information: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011 Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 22–5. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why Do You Feel Like You’re Falling When You Go To Sleep? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA ADP Systems: Information on the Automated Mission and Payload Tracking System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-87-38FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obi CN. Evaluation of feeding varying levels of digestible lysine on broiler breeder male reproductive characteristics and body weight changes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Eritrean Couple’s Reunion, Decades in the Making. New York Times. 2016 Nov 23;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Formos. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0929-6646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles