How to format your references using the Journal of the Formosan Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook EJ. Atmospheric science. Tiny bubbles tell all. Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1285–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
New AM, Lehner B. Systems biology: Network evolution hinges on history. Nature. 2015 Jul 16;523(7560):297–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pollitz FF, Wicks C, Thatcher W. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Science. 2001 Sep 7;293(5536):1814–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tarassov K, Messier V, Landry CR, Radinovic S, Serna Molina MM, Shames I, et al. An in vivo map of the yeast protein interactome. Science. 2008 Jun 13;320(5882):1465–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway J. Becoming a Category of One. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Boella G, Elkind E, Savarimuthu BTR, Dignum F, Purvis MK, editors. PRIMA 2013: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 16th International Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 1-6, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XVIII, 536 p. 158 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8291).
A chapter in an edited book
Parrisbalogun S. Adherence. In: Loue S, editor. Mental Health Practitioner’s Guide to HIV/AIDS. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 75–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Do Humans Love Food So Much? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reports and Testimony: December 1995. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Jan. Report No.: OPA-96-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wylie RW. Response to Intervention: A Study of Intervention Programs in Rural Secondary Schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Beach Rats. New York Times. 2017 Aug 24;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Formos. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0929-6646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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