How to format your references using the Journal of the Formosan Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Templeton A. Out of Africa again and again. Nature. 2002 Mar 7;416(6876):45–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang K, Kaufman RJ. From endoplasmic-reticulum stress to the inflammatory response. Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):455–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kamat SS, Williams HJ, Raushel FM. Intermediates in the transformation of phosphonates to phosphate by bacteria. Nature. 2011 Nov 16;480(7378):570–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fortunato S, Bergstrom CT, Börner K, Evans JA, Helbing D, Milojević S, et al. Science of science. Science. 2018 Mar 2;359(6379).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gianni R. Responsibility and Freedom. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Martienssen W, Warlimont H, editors. Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. eReference.
A chapter in an edited book
Hines RS. The Role of Genomic and Applied Molecular Biology. In: Smith RP, editor. Primary Care in Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Handbook for Clinicians. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 89–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Something Big Exploded In A Galaxy Far, Far Away: What Was It? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Incomplete Transition Back to National Maintenance and Certification Standards in the Federal Aviation Administration’s Alaskan Region. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Nov. Report No.: GAO-02-127R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart AM. Estimation of urban-enhanced infiltration and groundwater recharge, Sierra Vista subbasin, southeast Arizona USA [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenberg J. The Long, Long Road to Building ‘Fences.’ New York Times. 2016 Dec 23;AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Formos. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0929-6646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles