How to format your references using the Journal of the Formosan Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser J. TOXICOLOGY: Just How Bad Is Dioxin? Science. 2000 Jun 16;288(5473):1941b–4b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Withers P, Neumann GA. Enigmatic northern plains of Mars. Nature. 2001 Apr 5;410(6829):651.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woosley SE, Blinnikov S, Heger A. Pulsational pair instability as an explanation for the most luminous supernovae. Nature. 2007 Nov 15;450(7168):390–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hänsel W, Hommelhoff P, Hänsch TW, Reichel J. Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip. Nature. 2001 Oct 4;413(6855):498–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zauderer E. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Mannion AM, editor. Carbon and its domestication. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XVI, 320 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou J, Wen C. Multivariable Adaptive Control. In: Wen C, editor. Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems: Nonsmooth Nonlinearities, Interactions or Time-Variations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 51–64. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Type Of Exoplanet Discovered. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Data Center Consolidation: Agencies Making Progress on Efforts, but Inventories and Plans Need to Be Completed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jul. Report No.: GAO-12-742.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowles A. The development of a standard of care for competency to stand trial evaluations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. After Battle of Strategy, Two Managers Are Satisfied With Their Moves. New York Times. 2016 Oct 17;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Formos. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0929-6646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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