How to format your references using the Journal of the Formosan Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein A. Collaboration: Link the world’s best investigators. Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stahler S, Palla F. Astronomy. The beat of young stars. Science. 2014 Aug 1;345(6196):514–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schubert G, Russell CT, Moore WB. Timing of the Martian dynamo. Nature. 2000 Dec 7;408(6813):666–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tawk M, Araya C, Lyons DA, Reugels AM, Girdler GC, Bayley PR, et al. A mirror-symmetric cell division that orchestrates neuroepithelial morphogenesis. Nature. 2007 Apr 12;446(7137):797–800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthier J, Brakke KA, Berthier E. Open Microfluidics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Schütze O, Coello Coello CA, Tantar A-A, Tantar E, Bouvry P, Del Moral P, et al., editors. EVOLVE - A Bridge between Probability, Set Oriented Numerics, and Evolutionary Computation II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XXIV, 508 p. 152 illus. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; vol. 175).
A chapter in an edited book
Khouzani MHR, Pham V, Cid C. Strategic Discovery and Sharing of Vulnerabilities in Competitive Environments. In: Poovendran R, Saad W, editors. Decision and Game Theory for Security: 5th International Conference, GameSec 2014, Los Angeles, CA, USA, November 6-7, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 59–78. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Malaria Vaccine Trial Yields Promising Results [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. High Definition Television: The Effects of Standards on U.S. Entertainment Industries. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Mar. Report No.: IMTEC-90-33.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tian CY. Studies of equilibrium conditions in housing markets [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. 2015 Jun 19;C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Formos. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0929-6646
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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