How to format your references using the African Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dresser, R. (2012). Research ethics. Aligning regulations and ethics in human research. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6094), 527–528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sandalow, D. B., & Bowles, I. A. (2001). Climate change. Fundamentals of treaty-making on climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5523), 1839–1840.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vinther, J., Van Roy, P., & Briggs, D. E. G. (2008). Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature, 451(7175), 185–188.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Feng, N., Mi, W., Cheng, Y., Guo, Z., Schwingenschlögl, U., & Bai, H. (2014). First principles prediction of the magnetic properties of Fe-X₆ (X = S, C, N, O, F) doped monolayer MoS₂. Scientific Reports, 4, 3987.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Démoulin, B., & Besnier, P. (2011). Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Glau, K., Grbac, Z., Scherer, M., & Zagst, R. (Eds.). (2016). Innovations in Derivatives Markets: Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation (Vol. 165). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lichtenstein, A., Oehme, A., Kupschick, S., & Jürgensohn, T. (2008). Comparing Two Emotion Models for Deriving Affective States from Physiological Data. In C. Peter & R. Beale (Eds.), Affect and Emotion in Human-Computer Interaction: From Theory to Applications (pp. 35–50). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Identities.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 13). Teenager Invents Device That Lets User Communicate With Just Exhales. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (GAO-03-360R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albers, C. (2015). One Academic Year Study of Experiences of One Cohort of Graduates from a Midwestern University’s Teacher Education Program [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, January 14). Suffolk Seeks Ways to Ease School Taxes. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dresser, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dresser, 2012; Sandalow & Bowles, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sandalow & Bowles, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Vinther et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Feng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Identities
ISSN (print)1472-5843
ISSN (online)1472-5851
Cultural Studies

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