How to format your references using the African Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cherry, M. (2000). Construction starts on largest telescope in the south. Nature, 407(6800), 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rees, D. C., & Howard, J. B. (2003). The interface between the biological and inorganic worlds: iron-sulfur metalloclusters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5621), 929–931.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gormley, W. T., Jr, Phillips, D., & Gayer, T. (2008). The early years. Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5884), 1723–1724.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sogabe, T., Shoji, Y., Ohba, M., Yoshida, K., Tamaki, R., Hong, H.-F., Wu, C.-H., Kuo, C.-T., Tomić, S., & Okada, Y. (2014). Intermediate-band dynamics of quantum dots solar cell in concentrator photovoltaic modules. Scientific Reports, 4, 4792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steland, A. (2012). Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
da Silva, L. F. M., Öchsner, A., & Adams, R. D. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of Adhesion Technology. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Heraty, J. M., Polaszek, A., & Schauff, M. E. (2008). Systematics and Biology of Encarsia. In J. Gould, K. Hoelmer, & J. Goolsby (Eds.), Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States - A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation (pp. 71–87). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Identities.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, October 27). What Would You See If You Turned Your Headlights On While Driving A Car At Lightspeed? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Education of Homeless Students: Improved Program Oversight Needed (GAO-14-465). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCready, M. (2017). Examining the Role of Community Capacity for Sustainable Water Planning through Local Urban Governance: A Case Study Analysis of Waukesha, Wisconsin [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2016, August 15). Violence in Milwaukee Was No Shock to Some. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cherry, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cherry, 2000; Rees & Howard, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rees & Howard, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Gormley et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sogabe et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Identities
ISSN (print)1472-5843
ISSN (online)1472-5851
Cultural Studies

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