How to format your references using the African Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gade, A. (2015). Nuclear physics: Sometimes γ-rays come in twos. Nature, 526(7573), 330–331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bourc’his, D., & Bestor, T. H. (2004). Meiotic catastrophe and retrotransposon reactivation in male germ cells lacking Dnmt3L. Nature, 431(7004), 96–99.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montague, P. R., Hyman, S. E., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). Computational roles for dopamine in behavioural control. Nature, 431(7010), 760–767.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sakaguchi, K., Shimizu, T., Horaguchi, S., Sekine, H., Yamato, M., Umezu, M., & Okano, T. (2013). In vitro engineering of vascularized tissue surrogates. Scientific Reports, 3, 1316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liphard, K. G. (2014). Labormanagement. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Rangel-Buitrago, N. (2015). Risk Assessment of Storms in Coastal Zones: Case Studies from Cartagena (Colombia) and Cadiz (Spain) (G. Anfuso, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dhaliwal, S., & Deakins, D. (2014). Entrepreneurial Discovery and Asian Entrepreneurship in the UK. In A. Lundström, C. Zhou, Y. von Friedrichs, & E. Sundin (Eds.), Social Entrepreneurship: Leveraging Economic, Political, and Cultural Dimensions (pp. 93–111). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Identities.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 20). Adorable Slow Lorises Will Go For The Most Potent Of Drinks. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). TSA Explosives Detection Canine Program: Actions Needed to Analyze Data and Ensure Canine Teams Are Effectively Utilized (GAO-13-239). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grant, J. A. (2015). Far-field noise from a rotor in a wind tunnel [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stuart, C., Monkovic, T., & Bretherton, G. (2010, November 24). 1,000 Yards Later, It’s O.K. to Ask, Who Is That Guy? New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gade, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bourc’his & Bestor, 2004; Gade, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bourc’his & Bestor, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Montague et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sakaguchi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Identities
ISSN (print)1472-5843
ISSN (online)1472-5851
Cultural Studies

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