How to format your references using the African Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. (2000). SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: NASA Blasted for Rising Costs, Cancellations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5497), 1666a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tao, Y. J., & Zheng, W. (2012). Biochemistry. Visualizing the influenza genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6114), 1545–1546.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giles, S., Friedman, M., & Brazeau, M. D. (2015). Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome. Nature, 520(7545), 82–85.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
King, A. W., Gunderson, C. A., Post, W. M., Weston, D. J., & Wullschleger, S. D. (2006). Atmosphere. Plant respiration in a warmer world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5773), 536–537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leibowitz, M. L., Bova, A., & Hammond, P. B. (2010). The Endowment Model of Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Demazeux, S., & Singy, P. (Eds.). (2015). The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel (Vol. 10). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Johansson, T., & Donner, P. (2015). Strict Ocean Governance and Commercial Implications of Arctic Navigation. In P. Donner (Ed.), The Shipping Industry, Ocean Governance and Environmental Law in the Paradigm Shift: In Search of a Pragmatic Balance for the Arctic (pp. 67–73). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Identities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 6). Nobel Prize Awarded To Scientists Who Identified The Brain’s “GPS System.” IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). NASA: Issues Surrounding the Transition from the Space Shuttle to the Next Generation of Human Space Flight Systems (GAO-07-595T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holby, N. (2017). School Counselors and Their Experiences Implementing Comprehensive Programs [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Henking, S. (2013, August 25). Drawn to Uncertainties. New York Times, BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler, 2000; Tao & Zheng, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tao & Zheng, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Giles et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (King et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Identities
ISSN (print)1472-5843
ISSN (online)1472-5851
Cultural Studies

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