How to format your references using the Journal of Hainan Medical University citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hainan Medical University (JHMU). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tooze SA. Cell biology. GGAs tie up the loose ends. Science 2001;292(5522):1663–1665.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sabel T, Zschocher M. Transition of refractive index contrast in course of grating growth. Sci Rep 2013;3:2552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Magavi SS, Leavitt BR, Macklis JD. Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice. Nature 2000;405(6789):951–955.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li M, Guan S, Wu C, Gong X, Li K, Wu J, et al. From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks. Sci Rep 2014;4:4861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perry DE, Haluska MJ. Hiring Greatness. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Bourassa MG, Tardif J-C (eds.). Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease. Second Edition. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Cannarsa P, D’Aprile T. Spazi di Hilbert. In: D’Aprile T, editor. Introduzione alla teoria della misura e all’analisi funzionale. Springer: Milano, 2008: 121–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hainan Medical University.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Arecibo Improves On The Measurement Of The Fine Structure Constant. IFLScience. 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Support Service Contracting at Johnson Space Center Needs Strengthening. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spruill EL. A correlational analysis relating organizational climate to employee performance: A case study. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Hedge Fund Math: Heads or Tails, They Win. New York Times. 2016;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hainan Medical University
ISSN (print)1007-1237

Other styles