How to format your references using the Journal of Hainan Medical University citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hainan Medical University (JHMU). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norreys PA. Physics. Controlling implosion symmetry around a deuterium-tritium target. Science 2010;327(5970):1208–1210.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhalla N, Dernburg AF. A conserved checkpoint monitors meiotic chromosome synapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 2005;310(5754):1683–1686.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook RL, Martin PJ, Geremia JM. Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement. Nature 2007;446(7137):774–777.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun F, Wang R, Aku-Leh C, Yang HX, He R, Zhao J. Double charge ordering states and spin ordering state observed in a RFe2O4 system. Sci Rep 2014;4:6429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell J. Index of Medical Imaging. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Uustalu T (ed.). Mathematics of Program Construction: 8th International Conference, MPC 2006, Kuressaare, Estonia, July 3-5, 2006. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Leeper CM, Gödeke J, Scholz S. The Thorax. In: Scholz S, Jarboe MD, editors. Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound in Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016: 27–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hainan Medical University.

Blog post
Andrew E. Revealed: Asteroid That Killed The Dinosaurs Boiled The Earth’s Atmosphere. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Trade: Concerns Over Biotechnology Challenge U.S. Agricultural Exports. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaramillo MA. Morphology of ferromagnetic thin films on nanosphere templates. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Duerden J. Qatar’s World Cup Résumé: Zero Games; 2022 Host. New York Times. 2017;:SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hainan Medical University
ISSN (print)1007-1237

Other styles