How to format your references using the High Energy Density Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Energy Density Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Capturing competencies, Nature. 421 (2003) 871.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R. Toggweiler, J. Russell, Ocean circulation in a warming climate, Nature. 451 (2008) 286–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.W. Oppo, J.F. McManus, J.L. Cullen, Palaeo-oceanography: Deepwater variability in the Holocene epoch, Nature. 422 (2003) 277.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Fan, M. Fan, B.J. Orlando, N.M. Fastman, J. Zhang, Y. Xu, M.G. Chambers, X. Xu, K. Perry, M. Liao, L. Feng, X-ray and cryo-EM structures of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, Nature. 559 (2018) 575–579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.A. Ratliff, The Laboratory Quality Assurance System, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
S. Hougardy, Algorithmic Mathematics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Guckenberger, Stereotaxic Body Radiotherapy for Stage I NSCLC, in: S. Peters, B. Besse (Eds.), New Therapeutic Strategies in Lung Cancers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 33–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Energy Density Physics.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Humans Are Still Evolving But In Ways That Might Surprise You, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, SSA Services to Employers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.K. Manjounes, An adult accelerated degree program: Student and instructor perspectives and factors that affect retention, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Court Hears Arguments on Burden of Proof in Age Suits, New York Times. (2008) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Energy Density Physics
AbbreviationHigh Energy Density Phys.
ISSN (print)1574-1818
ScopeNuclear and High Energy Physics

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