How to format your references using the Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gandy S. Perspective: prevention is better than cure. Nature. 2011 Jul 13;475(7355):S15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hench LL, Polak JM. Third-generation biomedical materials. Science. 2002 Feb 8;295(5557):1014–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shatzkes K, Teferedegne B, Murata H. A simple, inexpensive method for preparing cell lysates suitable for downstream reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 11;4:4659.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Allwood DA, Xiong G, Faulkner CC, Atkinson D, Petit D, Cowburn RP. Magnetic domain-wall logic. Science. 2005 Sep 9;309(5741):1688–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldkamp FL, Whalen RC. Financial Stability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Irschik H, Krommer M, Watanabe K, Furukawa T, editors. Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures. Vienna: Springer; 2010. XVII, 222 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Santana MNP, Melo ACMA. Biological Sequence Comparison Application in Heterogeneous Environments with Dynamic Programming Algorithms. In: Sagot MF, Walter MEMT, editors. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Second Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2007, Angra dos Reis, Brazil, August 29-31, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 46–56. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.

Blog post
Davis J. 86% Of New Power Added To Europe’s Grid Came From Renewables In 2016. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Estimated Total U.S. Funding Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-95-163.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker HA. Virtual Mate Poaching: A study of the tactics used to poach a potential mate on Social Networking Sites [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berger J. Officer Kills Man After Stabbing in Synagogue. New York Times. 2014 Dec 10;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
AbbreviationJ. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak.
ISSN (print)1022-386X
ISSN (online)1681-7168
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles