How to format your references using the Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nikas JB. Inflammation and immune system activation in aging: a mathematical approach. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 19;3:3254.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002 Dec 6;298(5600):1955–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Braunschweig H, Radacki K, Schneider A. Oxoboryl complexes: boron-oxygen triple bonds stabilized in the coordination sphere of platinum. Science. 2010 Apr 16;328(5976):345–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Belonoshko AB, Skorodumova NV, Rosengren A, Johansson B. Elastic anisotropy of Earth’s inner core. Science. 2008 Feb 8;319(5864):797–800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dean JR. Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy: Dean/Plasma. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005. (Analytical Techniques in the Sciences).
An edited book
Baxley TP. (In)visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color. Boston GH, editor. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014. VIII, 142 p. (Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education; vol. 102).
A chapter in an edited book
Prants SV. Hamiltonian Chaos with a Cold Atom in an Optical Lattice. In: Luo ACJ, Afraimovich V, editors. Hamiltonian Chaos Beyond the KAM Theory: Dedicated to George M Zaslavsky (1935–2008). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 193–223. (Luo ACJ, Ibragimov NH, editors. Nonlinear Physical Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Get Ready To Celebrate “Galactic Tick Day” This September [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Yolo County, California, Economic Opportunity Commission Concerning Matters Affecting Local Poverty Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Jun. Report No.: HRD-81-110.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naughton CC. Assessing Appropriate Technology Handwashing Stations in Mali, West Africa [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Dole Seeking To Go Public With Shares Once More. New York Times. 2017 Apr 26;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
AbbreviationJ. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak.
ISSN (print)1022-386X
ISSN (online)1681-7168
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles