How to format your references using the Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murphy KM. Comment on “Activation of β-catenin in dendritic cells regulates immunity versus tolerance in the intestine.” Science. 2011 Jul 22;333(6041):405; author reply 405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kmita M, Duboule D. Organizing axes in time and space; 25 years of colinear tinkering. Science. 2003 Jul 18;301(5631):331–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zarrinpar A, Park S-H, Lim WA. Optimization of specificity in a cellular protein interaction network by negative selection. Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):676–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fan C, Fan M, Orlando BJ, Fastman NM, Zhang J, Xu Y, et al. X-ray and cryo-EM structures of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Nature. 2018 Jul;559(7715):575–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prager FH, Rosteck H. Polyurethane and Fire. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Sun J, Liu J, Yang Y, Fan S, editors. China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVIII, 610 p. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; vol. 160).
A chapter in an edited book
van den Hoven M. Commentary: The Struggle Against AIDS and the Pharmaceuticals Industry – Are There Limits to the Moral Obligation to Do Good? In: Dubbink W, Liedekerke L van, Luijk H van, editors. European Business Ethics Cases in Context: The Morality of Corporate Decision Making. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 47–53. (Issues in Business Ethics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Happens If You Add Propane To Cola? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Adult Education: Measuring Program Results Has Been Challenging. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Sep. Report No.: HEHS-95-153.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilmore AG. Quantification of oxidative reaction efficiencies for hydroxyl radical oxidized antibiotics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Roz Chast Is New Yorkier Than You. New York Times. 2017 Oct 11;MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
AbbreviationJ. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak.
ISSN (print)1022-386X
ISSN (online)1681-7168
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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