How to format your references using the Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDevitt J. The candidate. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knight JC, Russell PSJ. Applied optics. New ways to guide light. Science. 2002 Apr 12;296(5566):276–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feurer T, Vaughan JC, Nelson KA. Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves. Science. 2003 Jan 17;299(5605):374–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chamberlain SR, Müller U, Blackwell AD, Clark L, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans. Science. 2006 Feb 10;311(5762):861–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plantin JC. Participatory Mapping. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Clark BW, editor. Proceedings of the 18th International Meshing Roundtable. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XIV, 654 p.
A chapter in an edited book
AbuZeina D, Elshafei M. Cross-Word Pronunciation Variations. In: Elshafei M, editor. Cross-Word Modeling for Arabic Speech Recognition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012. p. 35–46. (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.

Blog post
Luntz S. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Plans Are Under Way To Contact Any Aliens Around Nearby Stars. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Satellites: Planning for the Geostationary Satellite Program Needs More Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: AIMD-97-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ishutov S. Tectonic characterization of the THUMS-Huntington Beach fault, offshore southern California [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
AbbreviationJ. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak.
ISSN (print)1022-386X
ISSN (online)1681-7168
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles