How to format your references using the Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt S. Aetiology: Crucial clues. Nature. 2014 Sep 11;513(7517):S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lorenz UJ, Zewail AH. Nanofluidics. Observing liquid flow in nanotubes by 4D electron microscopy. Science. 2014 Jun 27;344(6191):1496–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baker PJ, Harris S, Webbon CC. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers. Nature. 2002 Sep 5;419(6902):34.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Que LG, Liu L, Yan Y, Whitehead GS, Gavett SH, Schwartz DA, et al. Protection from experimental asthma by an endogenous bronchodilator. Science. 2005 Jun 10;308(5728):1618–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tatham M, Morton K. Developments in Speech Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Berretti S, Thampi SM, Dasgupta S, editors. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications: Volume 2. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVIII, 464 p. 194 illus. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; vol. 385).
A chapter in an edited book
Bas P, Furon T, Cayre F, Doërr G, Mathon B. Attacks. In: Furon T, Cayre F, Doërr G, Mathon B, editors. Watermarking Security. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 103–22. (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.

Blog post
Luntz S. Supercooled Helium Does Things That Don’t Seem Possible [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects--Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects as of April 30, 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Aug. Report No.: GAO-04-935R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marshall LD. The jeweled net, sacred landscape, and the vision of the heart [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 50 Years Later, Maris’s 61-Homer Season Looks Even Better. New York Times. 2011 Aug 21;SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
AbbreviationJ. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak.
ISSN (print)1022-386X
ISSN (online)1681-7168
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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