How to format your references using the Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. German Greens go cold on nuclear fusion. Nature. 2000 May 11;405(6783):107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn NG, Resing KA. Cell biology. Lessons in rational drug design for protein kinases. Science. 2005 May 27;308(5726):1266–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreira JA, Pacheco JM, Santos FC. Evolution of collective action in adaptive social structures. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1521.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kachkanov V, Leung B, Song J, Zhang Y, Tsai M-C, Yuan G, et al. Structural dynamics of GaN microcrystals in Evolutionary Selection Selective Area Growth probed by X-ray microdiffraction. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 11;4:4651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edgerton M. A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Mittermeir RT, editor. From Computer Literacy to Informatics Fundamentals: International Conference on Informatics in Secondary Schools – Evolution and Perspectives, ISSEP 2005, Klagenfurt, Austria, March 30 - April 1, 2005, Proceeedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. X, 203 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3422).
A chapter in an edited book
Borwein JM, Burachik RS, Yao L. Monotone Operators Without Enlargements. In: Bailey DH, Bauschke HH, Borwein P, Garvan F, Théra M, Vanderwerff JD, et al., editors. Computational and Analytical Mathematics: In Honor of Jonathan Borwein’s 60th Birthday. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 79–103. (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica).

Blog post
Andrew E. Chimpanzee Thievery Caught On Film [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status and Issues Pertaining to the Proposed Development of the Space Telescope Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 May. Report No.: PSAD-77-98.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene L. Perceptions Of Women Leaders In A Catholic Archdiocese: A Phenomenological Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Fixing Geffen Hall? Ask Ohio. New York Times. 2017 Oct 17;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica)
ISSN (print)1790-7306

Other styles