How to format your references using the Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingerich O. Year of astronomy: Mankind’s place in the Universe. Nature. 2009 Jan 1;457(7225):28–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson CG, Sherman PW. Anciently asexual bdelloid rotifers escape lethal fungal parasites by drying up and blowing away. Science. 2010 Jan 29;327(5965):574–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koo B, Nottenburg C, Pardey PG. Intellectual property. Plants and intellectual property: an international appraisal. Science. 2004 Nov 19;306(5700):1295–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jiang D, Hao M, Fu J, Zhuang D, Huang Y. Spatial-temporal variation of marginal land suitable for energy plants from 1990 to 2010 in China. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 24;4:5816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson JB. Digital Transmission Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Chowdhury DR, Rijmen V, Das A, editors. Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2008: 9th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kharagpur, India, December 14-17, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XV, 437 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5365).
A chapter in an edited book
Frost L. The Pleasures of Dystopia. In: Greenberg J, Waddell N, editors. “Brave New World”: Contexts and Legacies. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica).

Blog post
Fang J. Monkeys Use Researchers as Human Shields. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. New Ways of Preparing Data for Computers Could Save Money and Time and Reduce Errors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Jul. Report No.: FGMSD-78-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casale N. Generational preferences in marketing medium selections of animal adoptions in nonprofit organizations: A correlational study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Syrian Forces Capture Refugee Camp, Tightening Siege of Rebels in Aleppo. New York Times. 2016 Sep 24;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica)
ISSN (print)1790-7306

Other styles