How to format your references using the Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazar MA. Gene regulation. One man’s food. Nature. 2000 Oct 19;407(6806):852–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Han Y, Grier DG. Fluid dynamics: Vortex rings in a constant electric field. Nature. 2003 Jul 17;424(6946):267–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang X, Wang Y, Li M. Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 14;4:6070.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tyagi A, Kapoor P, Kumar R, Chaudhary K, Gautam A, Raghava GPS. In silico models for designing and discovering novel anticancer peptides. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 18;3:2984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abracen J, Looman J. Treatment of High-Risk Sexual Offenders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Anderluh G, Lakey J, editors. Proteins Membrane Binding and Pore Formation. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. XIX, 172 p. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; vol. 677).
A chapter in an edited book
Botti V, Garrido A, Giret A, Noriega P. The Role of MAS as a Decision Support Tool in a Water-Rights Market. In: Dechesne F, Hattori H, Mors AT, Such JM, Weyns D, Dignum F, editors. Advanced Agent Technology: AAMAS 2011 Workshops, AMPLE, AOSE, ARMS, DOCM3AS, ITMAS, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2-6, 2011 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 35–49. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica).

Blog post
Luntz S. A Robot You Can Wear Could Help Carry Heavy Loads [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunication: Air Force Cost Estimates for Scope Exchange Telephone Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Jul. Report No.: IMTEC-86-22FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ilag GM. An examination of the entity participants’ collaborative partnerships within the United Nations Global Compact [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. In Cleveland’s Revival, They Were Champions First. New York Times. 2016 Oct 31;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHospital Chronicles (Nosokomiaka Chronica)
ISSN (print)1790-7306

Other styles