How to format your references using the Astronomy and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astronomy and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buffett, B.A., 2003. Geophysics. The thermal state of Earth’s core. Science 299, 1675–1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron, J.L., Bynum, W.F., 2000. Millennial highlights...from Gerbert d’Aurillac to Watson and Crick. Nature 403, 13–16.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klöckner, H.-R., Baan, W.A., Garrett, M.A., 2003. Investigation of the obscuring circumnuclear torus in the active galaxy Mrk231. Nature 421, 821–823.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Paulot, F., Crounse, J.D., Kjaergaard, H.G., Kürten, A., St Clair, J.M., Seinfeld, J.H., Wennberg, P.O., 2009. Unexpected epoxide formation in the gas-phase photooxidation of isoprene. Science 325, 730–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter, K.B., 2014. Actionable Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Palma, J.M.L.M., Amestoy, P.R., Daydé, M., Mattoso, M., Lopes, J.C. (Eds.), 2008. High Performance Computing for Computational Science - VECPAR 2008: 8th International Conference, Toulouse, France, June 24-27, 2008. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Snarskii, A.A., Bezsudnov, I.V., Sevryukov, V.A., Morozovskiy, A., Malinsky, J., 2016. Elements of Geometrical Theory of Percolation, in: Bezsudnov, I.V., Sevryukov, V.A., Morozovskiy, A., Malinsky, J. (Eds.), Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 41–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astronomy and Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Five Amazing Ways Plants Have Created New Technologies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Aviation Competition: International Aviation Alliances and the Influence of Airline Marketing Practices (No. T-RCED-98-131). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharp, K., 2016. The Epistolary Form: A Familiar Fiction (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2016. Doctor-Turned-Artist Reveals Holy City’s Hidden Side. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buffett, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Buffett, 2003; Heilbron and Bynum, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heilbron and Bynum, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Paulot et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAstronomy and Computing
AbbreviationAstron. Comput.
ISSN (print)2213-1337
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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