How to format your references using the Astronomy and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astronomy and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raizen, M.G., 2009. Comprehensive control of atomic motion. Science 324, 1403–1406.
A journal article with 2 authors
Promislow, D.E.L., Kaeberlein, M., 2014. Development. Chemical warfare in the battle of the sexes. Science 343, 491–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sinervo, B., Svensson, E., Comendant, T., 2000. Density cycles and an offspring quantity and quality game driven by natural selection. Nature 406, 985–988.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Graves, L.M., Guy, H.I., Kozlowski, P., Huang, M., Lazarowski, E., Pope, R.M., Collins, M.A., Dahlstrand, E.N., Earp, H.S., 3rd, Evans, D.R., 2000. Regulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by MAP kinase. Nature 403, 328–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rim, C.T., Mi, C., 2017. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Denti, L.G., 2012. Rattling Chains: Exploring Social Justice in Education, Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Prassas, E.S., Roess, R.P., 2013. The Costs of Transportation for Alternative Economic Analysis, in: Roess, R.P. (Ed.), Engineering Economics and Finance for Transportation Infrastructure, Springer Tracts on Transportation and Traffic. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astronomy and Computing.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. New Rare Neurodegenerative Brain Disease Discovered And Described [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. What Assurance Does Office of Education’s Eligibility Process Provide? (No. HRD-78-120). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Senaga, K.A., 2016. Tasteless, cheap, and southern? The rise and decline of the farm-raised catfish industry (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. A Shelter Gets a Cold Shoulder In a “Pastoral” Residential Area. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raizen, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Promislow and Kaeberlein, 2014; Raizen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Promislow and Kaeberlein, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Graves et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAstronomy and Computing
AbbreviationAstron. Comput.
ISSN (print)2213-1337
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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