How to format your references using the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Julienne PS. Low-temperature physics: Chaos in the cold. Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):440–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clayton J, Butler D. The long and winding road. Nature. 2004 Aug 19;430(7002):937.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peumans P, Uchida S, Forrest SR. Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):158–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fliessbach K, Weber B, Trautner P, Dohmen T, Sunde U, Elger CE, et al. Social comparison affects reward-related brain activity in the human ventral striatum. Science. 2007 Nov 23;318(5854):1305–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andersson C, Freeman D, James I, Johnston A, Ljung S. Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Kassim TA, editor. Water Pollution: Environmental Impact Assessment of Recycled Wastes on Surface and Ground Waters; Risk Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XVII, 285 p. (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry; vol. 2).
A chapter in an edited book
Pickard T. The Administrative Process: Credentialing, Privileges, and Maintenance of Certification. In: Taylor DA, Sherry SP, Sing RF, editors. Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association.

Blog post
Luntz S. Dark Matter Scatters Before the Light [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Academy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: RCED-95-43R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Asare KB. Understanding the Transformational Leadership Practices of Colleges of Education Principals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Deep Into Arkansas Gang Life. New York Times. 2017 Sep 12;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
ISSN (print)0008-3194
ISSN (online)1715-6181

Other styles