How to format your references using the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grimaldi D. Paleontology. Pushing back amber production. Science. 2009 Oct 2;326(5949):51–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerst A, Savage MK. Seismic anisotropy beneath Ruapehu volcano: a possible eruption forecasting tool. Science. 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1543–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wigginton N, Yeston J, Malakoff D. Working with waste. More treasure than trash. Introduction. Science. 2012 Aug 10;337(6095):662–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Farrell SA, Webb NA, Barret D, Godet O, Rodrigues JM. An intermediate-mass black hole of over 500 solar masses in the galaxy ESO 243-49. Nature. 2009 Jul 2;460(7251):73–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Källén A. Understanding Biostatistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Feng C. China’s Changing Legal System: Lawyers & Judges on Civil & Criminal Law. Nelson LP, Simon TW, editors. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. XIX, 264 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Morschett D, Schramm-Klein H, Zentes J. Motives for Intelnationalisation. In: Schramm-Klein H, Zentes J, editors. Strategic International Management: Text and Cases. Wiesbaden: Gabler; 2010. p. 71–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Too Much Facebook Can Leave You Feeling Down [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Research Programs: Agencies Did Not Consistently Comply with Spending and Reporting Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Apr. Report No.: GAO-14-567T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caballero Suarez OL. Effects of ion correlations in high density plasmas: Neutrino scattering and transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sweeney-James KA. Remembering Nana. New York Times. 2017 Jul 31;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
ISSN (print)0008-3194
ISSN (online)1715-6181

Other styles