How to format your references using the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Osborne J. Arguing to learn in science: the role of collaborative, critical discourse. Science. 2010 Apr 23;328(5977):463–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kress TL, Guthrie C. Molecular biology. Accurate RNA siting and splicing gets help from a DEK-hand. Science. 2006 Jun 30;312(5782):1886–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mersch DP, Crespi A, Keller L. Tracking individuals shows spatial fidelity is a key regulator of ant social organization. Science. 2013 May 31;340(6136):1090–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Nakatsuka N, Yang K-A, Abendroth JM, Cheung KM, Xu X, Yang H, et al. Aptamer-field-effect transistors overcome Debye length limitations for small-molecule sensing. Science. 2018 Oct 19;362(6412):319–24.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kuehni RG. Color. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Riegraf B, Aulenbacher B, Kirsch-Auwärter E, Müller U, editors. GenderChange in Academia: Re-Mapping the Fields of Work, Knowledge, and Politics from a Gender Perspective. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2010. 458 p. 12 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dechesne F, Dignum V, Tan Y-H. Understanding Compliance Differences between Legal and Social Norms: The Case of Smoking Ban. In: Dechesne F, Hattori H, Mors AT, Such JM, Weyns D, Dignum F, editors. Advanced Agent Technology: AAMAS 2011 Workshops, AMPLE, AOSE, ARMS, DOCM3AS, ITMAS, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2-6, 2011 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 50–64. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Depression Can Physically Alter Your DNA [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-depression-affects-you-down-your-dna/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Is Making Progress But Important Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: T-AIMD/RCED-99-118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Black DD. Franz Liszt’s “Via Crucis”: A summation of the composer’s styles and beliefs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Corkery M, Cowley S. For Better or Worse, Debt Reaches New Peak. New York Times. 2017 May 17;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
ISSN (print)0008-3194
ISSN (online)1715-6181
Scope

Other styles