How to format your references using the Medical Molecular Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Molecular Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Waal FBM (2009) Darwin’s last laugh. Nature 460:175
A journal article with 2 authors
Dominguez-Villar M, Hafler DA (2011) Immunology. An innate role for IL-17. Science 332:47–48
A journal article with 3 authors
Laskar J, Levrard B, Mustard JF (2002) Orbital forcing of the martian polar layered deposits. Nature 419:375–377
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rao P, Hayden MS, Long M, et al (2010) IkappaBbeta acts to inhibit and activate gene expression during the inflammatory response. Nature 466:1115–1119

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzer SM (2015) Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Ábrahám E, Bonsangue M, Johnsen EB (2016) Theory and Practice of Formal Methods: Essays Dedicated to Frank de Boer on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pastorek J, Pastorekova S (2010) Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Expression and Function of Cancer-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase IX. In: Bagley RG (ed) The Tumor Microenvironment. Springer, New York, NY, pp 59–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Molecular Morphology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Plants Use Quantum Mechanics To Make Photosynthesis More Efficient. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dovale MJ (2013) Postwar japan’s hybrid modernity of in-betweenness: Historical, literary, and social perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D (2003) BASEBALL BOOKS IN BRIEF. New York Times 718

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Molecular Morphology
AbbreviationMed. Mol. Morphol.
ISSN (print)1860-1480
ISSN (online)1860-1499
ScopeMolecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles