How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Basset J-M. Yves Chauvin (1930-2015). Nature. 2015;519:159.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Skovran E, Martinez-Gomez NC. Microbiology. Just add lanthanides. Science. 2015;348:862–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rawson PD, Yund PO, Lindsay SM. Comment on “Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.” Science. 2007;316:53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hirana Y, Juhasz G, Miyauchi Y, Mouri S, Matsuda K, Nakashima N. Empirical prediction of electronic potentials of single-walled carbon nanotubes with a specific chirality (n,m). Sci Rep. 2013;3:2959.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tiwari A, Gerhardt RA, Szutkowska M. Advanced Ceramic Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Piscitelli SC, Rodvold KA, editors. Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases. Second Edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Leimanis ML. An Exploration of Latvian Immigrants’ Cancer Experience and Implications for Supportive Interventions. In: Fitzpatrick TR, editor. Treating Vulnerable Populations of Cancer Survivors: A Biopsychosocial Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 37–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 10 Science Jokes for Nerds. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Status of Transportation Security Inspector Workforce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Feb. Report No.: GAO-09-123R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Trump RK. Self -brand overlap and dissociation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. Pro Football; Bowles Hospitalized, and He May Not Coach. New York Times. 2016 Dec 23;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
AbbreviationCan. J. Kidney Health Dis.
ISSN (online)2054-3581

Other styles