How to format your references using the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (JAAHA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamilton WB. Comment on “A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite.” Science 2007;318:746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roškar R, Debattista VP. Astronomy. Galactic archaeology. Science 2012;338:333–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang LJ, Kuzmich A, Dogariu A. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation. Nature 2000;406:277–279.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang F, Zhang L, Zhang G-L, et al. WASH complex regulates Arp2/3 complex for actin-based polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes. Sci Rep 2014;4:5596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das JC. Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
El Miedany Y, editor. Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography in Rheumatic Diseases. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Yaduvanshi RS, Parthasarathy H. Mathematical Analysis of RDRA Amplitude Coefficients. In: Parthasarathy H, ed. Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antennas: Theory and Design, New Delhi: Springer India, 2016:103–134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Check Out This Stunning New View Of The Crab Nebula. IFLScience 2016. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Contracts Under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lorentz J. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. Election Influence, Separate and Unequal. New York Times 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Animal Hospital Association
ISSN (print)0587-2871
ISSN (online)1547-3317

Other styles