How to format your references using the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (JAAHA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam D. Manchester merger set to proceed as southerners go solo. Nature 2002;420:350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hafernik J, Saul-Gershenz L. Beetle larvae cooperate to mimic bees. Nature 2000;405:35–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeong K-H, Kim J, Lee LP. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. Science 2006;312:557–561.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Croucher NJ, Harris SR, Fraser C, et al. Rapid pneumococcal evolution in response to clinical interventions. Science 2011;331:430–434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williams DL. Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
An edited book
Shukla G, Varma A, editors. Soil Enzymology. vol. 22. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Lourenço R, Lourenço N, Horta N. Multi-objective Framework Implementation. In: Lourenço N, Horta N, eds. AIDA-CMK: Multi-Algorithm Optimization Kernel Applied to Analog IC Sizing, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015:33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.

Blog post
Andrew D. If You Develop Alzheimer’s, Will Your Children Get It Too? IFLScience 2016. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA’s Plans for Repairing or Replacing a Damaged or Destroyed Orbiter. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox AM. Functional Gain and Change Mechanisms in Post-Production Complex Systems. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. 3 Important Men and 1 Stressful Season. New York Times 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Animal Hospital Association
ISSN (print)0587-2871
ISSN (online)1547-3317

Other styles