How to format your references using the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (JAAHA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pretty J. Social capital and the collective management of resources. Science 2003;302:1912–1914.
A journal article with 2 authors
Plous S, Herzog HA. Poll shows researchers favor lab animal protection. Science 2000;290:711b.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naya Y, Yoshida M, Miyashita Y. Backward spreading of memory-retrieval signal in the primate temporal cortex. Science 2001;291:661–664.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blandin SA, Wang-Sattler R, Lamacchia M, et al. Dissecting the genetic basis of resistance to malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae. Science 2009;326:147–150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimann RB, Lehmann HD. Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2015.
An edited book
Fusiello A, Murino V, Cucchiara R, editors. Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. Workshops and Demonstrations: Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III. vol. 7585. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Helbing D, Johansson A. On the Controversy Around Daganzo’s Requiem for and Aw–Rascle’s Resurrection of Second-Order Traffic Flow Models. In: Bressan A, Helbing D, Klar A, et al., eds. Modelling and Optimisation of Flows on Networks: Cetraro, Italy 2009, Editors: Benedetto Piccoli, Michel Rascle, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013:271–302.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.

Blog post
Fang J. You Have Flies to Thank for That Pleasing Beer Smell. IFLScience 2014. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Corps of Engineers: An Assessment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement of the Lower Snake River Dams. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ringler I. Values satisfaction and participation in a community leadership program: A case study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Winning Recruits. New York Times 2010:E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Animal Hospital Association
ISSN (print)0587-2871
ISSN (online)1547-3317

Other styles