How to format your references using the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (JAAHA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hobe M. Atmospheric science. Revisiting ozone depletion. Science 2007;318:1878–1879.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turner DB, Nelson KA. Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells. Nature 2010;466:1089–1092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christensen UR, Holzwarth V, Reiners A. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars. Nature 2009;457:167–169.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guang S, Bochner AF, Pavelec DM, et al. An Argonaute transports siRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Science 2008;321:537–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega P. Geographical Information and Climatology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2010.
An edited book
Mishra MK, Bishnupuri KS, editors. Epigenetic Advancements in Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazzan O, Dubinsky Y. Measuresmeasuresmeasures. In: Dubinsky Y, ed. Agile Software Engineering, London: Springer, 2008:1–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Celebrity Selfies Helped us to Uncover How Memories are Formed in the Brain. IFLScience 2015. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects: Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mavromati A. One Foot In. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Sandwiches From an Heirloom. New York Times 2007:14NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Animal Hospital Association
ISSN (print)0587-2871
ISSN (online)1547-3317

Other styles