How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuypers MMM. Microbiology: A division of labour combined. Nature. 2015 Dec 24;528(7583):487–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun F, He S. Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 30;4:6832.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morens DM, Folkers GK, Fauci AS. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 2004 Jul 8;430(6996):242–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shindell DT, Faluvegi G, Koch DM, Schmidt GA, Unger N, Bauer SE. Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions. Science. 2009 Oct 30;326(5953):716–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago C. Implant Restorations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Bottiglia R, Pichler F, editors. Crowdfunding for SMEs: A European Perspective. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. XV, 236 p. 36 illus. (Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Banking and Financial Institutions).
A chapter in an edited book
Hay LL, Peng CE, Suyan T, Juxin L. Application of Evolutionary Algorithms for Solving Multi-Objective Simulation Optimization Problems. In: Goh CK, Ong YS, Tan KC, editors. Multi-Objective Memetic Algorithms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 91–110. (Studies in Computational Intelligence).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Education.

Blog post
Andrew E. Man Forms Star-Shaped Cataracts Following Electric Shock [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: RCED-97-51.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores D. The EastSide Café: A liberated learning zone [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Packer G. Revolutionary Roads. New York Times. 2015 Jul 5;BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Education
AbbreviationJ. Dent. Educ.
ISSN (print)0022-0337
ISSN (online)1930-7837
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles