How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunten DM. Atmospheric science. An iron deficiency in polar mesospheric clouds. Science. 2004 Apr 16;304(5669):395–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather MJ, Blake DR. F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Nature. 2012 Apr 11;484(7393):168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang JW, Zhuang X, Rabczuk T. Orientation dependent thermal conductance in single-layer MoS2. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2209.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lin H, Van Wagner E, Freeman BD, Toy LG, Gupta RP. Plasticization-enhanced hydrogen purification using polymeric membranes. Science. 2006 Feb 3;311(5761):639–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernström S. Valuation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Harder S, editor. Alkaline-Earth Metal Compounds: Oddities and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XI, 275 p. (Topics in Organometallic Chemistry; vol. 45).
A chapter in an edited book
Cámpora J, Brasse M. Challenges and Breakthroughs in Transition Metal Catalyzed Copolymerization of Polar and Non-Polar Olefins. In: Campora J, Giambastiani G, editors. Olefin Upgrading Catalysis by Nitrogen-based Metal Complexes II: State of the art and Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 199–261. (Catalysis by Metal Complexes).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Education.

Blog post
Andrew D. Wikileaks Vault 7 Reveals Staggering Breadth Of ‘Cia Hacking’ [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Nov. Report No.: GGD-76-21.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Croghan A. The Effects of Depressive Symptomatology, Intrusive Thinking, and Age on Cognitive Functioning [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Fire Chief Questions Closing of Streets. New York Times. 2002 Jun 30;145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Education
AbbreviationJ. Dent. Educ.
ISSN (print)0022-0337
ISSN (online)1930-7837
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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