How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kung C. A possible unifying principle for mechanosensation. Nature. 2005 Aug 4;436(7051):647–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silk J, Chluba J. Astronomy. Next steps for cosmology. Science. 2014 May 9;344(6184):586–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe H, Nebel CE, Shikata S. Isotopic homojunction band engineering from diamond. Science. 2009 Jun 12;324(5933):1425–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yokoyama T, Sakai H, Noguchi Y, Kita S. Perception of direct gaze does not require focus of attention. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 24;4:3858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hartley J. Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Adesina AM, Tihan T, Fuller CE, Poussaint TY, editors. Atlas of Pediatric Brain Tumors. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. X, 400 p. 717 illus., 303 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubicek H, Cimander R, Scholl HJ. Selection and Classification of Case Studies. In: Cimander R, Scholl HJ, editors. Organizational Interoperability in E-Government: Lessons from 77 European Good-Practice Cases. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 65–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Education.

Blog post
Andrew E. State Of Fear: What Should We Do About Sharks In New South Wales? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federally Leased Vehicles: Agencies Should Strengthen Assessment Processes to Reduce Underutilized Vehicles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Jan. Report No.: GAO-16-136.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ready C. Preventing childhood obesity in foster children: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Village Wants Restaurant Wastewater Degreased. New York Times. 2007 Jun 3;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Education
AbbreviationJ. Dent. Educ.
ISSN (print)0022-0337
ISSN (online)1930-7837
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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