How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature. 2005 Feb 3;433(7025):554.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Griffith LG, Naughton G. Tissue engineering--current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science. 2002 Feb 8;295(5557):1009–14.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wu J, Zhang C, Qiao H. The significance of p40 expression in sclerosing hemangioma of lung. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 18;4:6102.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kudla G, Murray AW, Tollervey D, Plotkin JB. Coding-sequence determinants of gene expression in Escherichia coli. Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):255–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pashley RM, Karaman ME. Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Huang Y, Kornhuber R, Widlund O, Xu J, editors. Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XIX. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XXIV, 472 p. 107 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering; vol. 78).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bottin F, Longo M. The History of Philosophy from Eclecticism to Pietism. In: Santinello G, Piaia G, editors. Models of the History of Philosophy: Volume II: From Cartesian Age to Brucker. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 301–85. (International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d’histoire des idées).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Education.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Could Life On Earth Have Thrived 3.2 Billion Years Ago? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/could-life-earth-have-thrived-32-billion-years-ago/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Much Biomedical Equipment Status Information Available, Yet Concerns Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 May. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-197.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Weissflug KG. Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich JR. A Zeffirelli Production, Excesses and All. New York Times. 2016 Sep 30;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Education
AbbreviationJ. Dent. Educ.
ISSN (print)0022-0337
ISSN (online)1930-7837
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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