How to format your references using the Journal of Dental Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Dental Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Servick K. Top heart lab comes under fire. Science. 2014 Jul 18;345(6194):254.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts L, Simpson S. Drug resistance. Deadly defiance. Introduction to special issue. Science. 2008 Jul 18;321(5887):355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vecchi GA, Swanson KL, Soden BJ. Climate change. Whither hurricane activity? Science. 2008 Oct 31;322(5902):687–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Su D, Xie X, Dou S, Wang G. CuO single crystal with exposed {001} facets--a highly efficient material for gas sensing and Li-ion battery applications. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 29;4:5753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dooner DB. Kinematic Geometry of Gearing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Pinheiro-Franco JL, Vaccaro AR, Benzel EC, Mayer HM, editors. Advanced Concepts in Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease. 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. XXV, 833 p. 342 illus., 183 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanczyk FZ. Androgen Measurements. In: Azziz R, Nestler JE, Dewailly D, editors. Androgen Excess Disorders in Women: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Disorders. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2007. p. 63–72. (Contemporary Endocrinology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Dental Education.

Blog post
Andrew E. Molten lava meets a can of Coke [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reports Issued in October 1988. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Oct. Report No.: 137398.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrew C. Living with Diabetes: The Value of Everyday Communication [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Replacing Yellow Buses, With Green in Mind. New York Times. 2006 Oct 29;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Dental Education
AbbreviationJ. Dent. Educ.
ISSN (print)0022-0337
ISSN (online)1930-7837
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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