How to format your references using the The New Zealand Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Zealand Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Covington WW. Helping western forests heal. Nature. 2000 Nov 9;408(6809):135–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wasserman SA, DiNardo S. Development. Staying a boy forever. Science. 2001 Dec 21;294(5551):2495–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bryden HL, Longworth HR, Cunningham SA. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25 degrees N. Nature. 2005 Dec 1;438(7068):655–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang K, Guo JZ, Peng Y, Xi W, Guo A. Dopamine-mushroom body circuit regulates saliency-based decision-making in Drosophila. Science. 2007 Jun 29;316(5833):1901–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maloberti F. Understanding Microelectronics. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Cheng MMH, So WWM, editors. Science Education in International Contexts. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011. XII, 178 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Håkanson L, Bryhn AC. Nutrients and Representativity of Data. In: Bryhn AC, editor. Tools and Criteria for Sustainable Coastal Ecosystem Management: Examples from the Baltic Sea and Other Aquatic Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 59–123. (Environmental Science and Engineering Subseries: Environmental Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Zealand Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. People Near Fracking Wells Show Higher Hospitalization Rates [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on EEO Discrimination Complaints. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Nov. Report No.: GGD-93-6R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson P. An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Long-Lost Flag, Mystery of 9/11, Heads to Museum in Manhattan. New York Times. 2016 Sep 7;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Zealand Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8446
ISSN (online)1175-8716

Other styles