How to format your references using the The New Zealand Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Zealand Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow RM. Retrospective. Paul A. Samuelson (1915-2009). Science. 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):282.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kan J, Wang Y. Large and fast reversible Li-ion storages in Fe2O3-graphene sheet-on-sheet sandwich-like nanocomposites. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 16;3:3502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ledingham KWD, McKenna P, Singhal RP. Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra-intense lasers. Science. 2003 May 16;300(5622):1107–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pool MR, Stumm J, Fulga TA, Sinning I, Dobberstein B. Distinct modes of signal recognition particle interaction with the ribosome. Science. 2002 Aug 23;297(5585):1345–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beckers B, Beckers P. Reconciliation of Geometry and Perception in Radiation Physics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Everest G. An Introduction to Number Theory. Ward T, editor. London: Springer; 2005. IX, 297 p. (Graduate Texts in Mathematics; vol. 232).
A chapter in an edited book
Sanders AR. Genetics of Schizophrenia. In: Janicak PG, Marder SR, Tandon R, Goldman M, editors. Schizophrenia: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Zealand Medical Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Newly Discovered Dinosaur had Wings like a Bat [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Systems: Actions on OMB Recommendations for a Joint Lookout System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Dec. Report No.: IMTEC-90-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves IS. Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM, Saulny S. A Tragedy in Detroit, With a Reality TV Crew in Tow. New York Times. 2010 May 22;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Zealand Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8446
ISSN (online)1175-8716

Other styles