How to format your references using the The New Zealand Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Zealand Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDonnell JJ. Creating a research brand. Science. 2015 Aug 14;349(6249):758.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pimm SL, Brown JH. Ecology. Domains of diversity. Science. 2004 May 7;304(5672):831–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen JL, Wilson CR, Tapley BD. Satellite gravity measurements confirm accelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet. Science. 2006 Sep 29;313(5795):1958–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun J, Liu X, Huang J, Song L, Chen Z, Liu H, et al. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies. Sci Rep. 2014 May 30;4:5125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Rewini H, Abd-El-Barr M. Advanced Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Skavhaug A, Guiochet J, Bitsch F, editors. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 35th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2016, Trondheim, Norway, September 21-23, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XV, 324 p. 105 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9922).
A chapter in an edited book
Negrini P. On a Definition of Total Stability for Continuous or Discrete Dynamical Systems. In: Salvadori L, editor. Stability Problems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 100–10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Zealand Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Technique Could Lead To Self-Healing Tires [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Software Capability Evaluation: VA’s Software Development Process Is Immature. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Jun. Report No.: AIMD-96-90.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor TE. Characterizing EGFRvIII-independent glioblastoma maintenance [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Auburn vs. Oregon: Headsets at 20 Paces. New York Times. 2011 Jan 9;SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Zealand Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8446
ISSN (online)1175-8716

Other styles