How to format your references using the The New Zealand Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Zealand Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody H. Beauty. Nature. 2015 Oct 8;526(7572):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
von Messling V, Cattaneo R. Virology. A henipavirus vaccine in sight. Science. 2012 Aug 10;337(6095):651–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komatitsch D, Ritsema J, Tromp J. The spectral-element method, Beowulf computing, and global seismology. Science. 2002 Nov 29;298(5599):1737–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sogabe T, Shoji Y, Ohba M, Yoshida K, Tamaki R, Hong H-F, et al. Intermediate-band dynamics of quantum dots solar cell in concentrator photovoltaic modules. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 25;4:4792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort H. Next Generation SDH/SONET. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Myers A, Moshenska G, editors. Archaeologies of Internment. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. XV, 313 p. 8 illus. (One World Archaeology).
A chapter in an edited book
Frieden BR, Soffer BH. Parallel Information Phenomena of Biology and Astrophysics. In: Frieden BR, Gatenby RA, editors. Exploratory Data Analysis Using Fisher Information. London: Springer; 2007. p. 155–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Zealand Medical Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Exxon’s Rex Tillerson And The Rise Of Big Oil In American Politics [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education and Disability: Education Needs a Coordinated Approach to Improve Its Assistance to Schools in Supporting Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Oct. Report No.: GAO-10-33.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stone B. Efficacy of Collaborative Consulting Training Module [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD. Trump, Inspired by France, Wants to Show Off Military Might With a July 4 Parade. New York Times. 2017 Sep 18;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Zealand Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8446
ISSN (online)1175-8716

Other styles