How to format your references using the Lab Animal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lab Animal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melançon, C. E., 3rd. Biochemistry: Elusive source of sulfur unravelled. Nature 518, 45–46 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Brovkin, V. & Claussen, M. Comment on ‘Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years’. Science 322, 1326; author reply 1326 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Körtner, G., Brigham, R. M. & Geiser, F. Winter torpor in a large bird. Nature 407, 318 (2000).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Spence, J. R. et al. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intestinal tissue in vitro. Nature 470, 105–109 (2011).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ginena, K. & Hamid, A. Foundations of Sharī‘ah Governance of Islamic Banks. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015).
An edited book
Pathologic Myopia. (Springer, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Amamiya, M. Agent-Oriented Approach to Ubiquitous Computing. in Embedded Software and Systems: First International Conference, ICESS 2004, Hangzhou, China, December 9-10, 2004, Revised Selected Papers (eds. Wu, Z., Chen, C., Guo, M. & Bu, J.) 30–37 (Springer, 2005).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lab Animal.

Blog post
Davis, J. Vaccine Breakthrough Of 1962 Has Saved 10 Million Lives Globally. IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Older Driver Safety: Knowledge Sharing Should Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver Population. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsubaihi, S. I. Challenges for women academic leaders to obtain senior leadership positions in higher education in Saudi Arabia. (Pepperdine University, 2016).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Yankees Trade McCann to the Astros. New York Times B10 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLab Animal
AbbreviationLab Anim. (NY)
ISSN (print)0093-7355
ISSN (online)1548-4475
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

Other styles