How to format your references using the Irish Journal of Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Journal of Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wakeham B (2008) UK physics gets a health check. Nature 455:592
A journal article with 2 authors
Volz J, Rauschenbeutel A (2012) Physics. Two atoms announce their long-distance relationship. Science 337:40–41
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia Y, Sanchez JA, Wangh LJ (2014) Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Sci Rep 4:5921
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Song K, Lee S-H, Kim K, et al (2014) Emission enhancement of sound emitters using an acoustic metamaterial cavity. Sci Rep 4:4165

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson SK, Handelsman MM (2009) Ethics for Psychotherapists and Counselors. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Butz MV, Sigaud O, Pezzulo G, Baldassarre G (2007) Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: From Brains to Individual and Social Behavior. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Naeem MA, Bajwa IS, Jamil N (2015) A Cache-Based Semi-Stream Join to deal with Unmatched Stream Data. In: Sharaf MA, Cheema MA, Qi J (eds) Databases Theory and Applications: 26th Australasian Database Conference, ADC 2015, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, June 4-7, 2015. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 54–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Journal of Medical Science.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) “Scarface,” The Beloved Bear Of Yellowstone Park, Has Been Killed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Intercollegiate Athletics: Compensation Varies for Selected Personnel in Athletic Departments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fregoso J (2015) Through the pipeline: Degree aspirations of African American and Latino males enrolled in California community colleges. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pols M (2017) Out of the Ashes. New York Times BR17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Journal of Medical Science
AbbreviationIr. J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0021-1265
ISSN (online)1863-4362
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles