How to format your references using the Irish Journal of Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Journal of Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac K (2012) Electronics: Back to analogue. Nature 483:S34-6
A journal article with 2 authors
Yethiraj A, van Blaaderen A (2003) A colloidal model system with an interaction tunable from hard sphere to soft and dipolar. Nature 421:513–517
A journal article with 3 authors
Roscioli JR, McCunn LR, Johnson MA (2007) Quantum structure of the intermolecular proton bond. Science 316:249–254
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tahirov TH, Temiakov D, Anikin M, et al (2002) Structure of a T7 RNA polymerase elongation complex at 2.9 A resolution. Nature 420:43–50

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yukihara EG, McKeever SWS (2011) Optically Stimulated Luminescence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Baxley TP (2014) (In)visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Ruuge AE, Van Oystaeyen F (2009) Automorphisms of Finite Orthoalgebras, Exceptional Root Systems and Quantum Mechanics. In: Silvestrov S, Paal E, Abramov V, Stolin A (eds) Generalized Lie Theory in Mathematics, Physics and Beyond. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Journal of Medical Science.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Get Ready To Celebrate “Galactic Tick Day” This September. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) The Unit Status and Identity Report (UNITREP) System--What It Does and Does Not Measure. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Constantine S (2013) Supportive services for transitional and emancipated youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Fitzsimmons EG (2016) Crane Collapse Kills Man on Busy Manhattan Block. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Journal of Medical Science
AbbreviationIr. J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0021-1265
ISSN (online)1863-4362
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles