How to format your references using the Journal of Systems Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Systems Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.J. Reimer, Archaeology. A new twist in the radiocarbon tale, Science. 294 (2001) 2494–2495.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.M. De La Cruz, T.D. Pollard, Structural biology. Actin’ up, Science. 293 (2001) 616–618.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.F. Cravatt, G.M. Simon, J.R. Yates 3rd, The biological impact of mass-spectrometry-based proteomics, Nature. 450 (2007) 991–1000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Dong, A.K. Agarwal, D.J. Beebe, H. Jiang, Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels, Nature. 442 (2006) 551–554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.W. Corrigan, D. Roe, H.W.H. Tsang, Challenging the Stigma of Mental Illness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
D.M. Micu, Climate of the Romanian Carpathians: Variability and Trends, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
I.J. Chiang, T.Y. (‘t Y.’) Lin, H.-C. Tsai, J.-M. Wong, X. Hu, Latent Semantic Space for Web Clustering, in: T.Y. Lin, Y. Xie, A. Wasilewska, C.-J. Liau (Eds.), Data Mining: Foundations and Practice, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Systems Architecture.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, New NASA Mission Will Visit An Asteroid That Has A Slim Chance Of Hitting Earth, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Child Left Behind Act: Enhancements in the Department of Education’s Review Process Could Improve State Academic Assessments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.A. Adams, Improving Scores on Computerized Reading Assessments: The Effects of Colored Overlay Use, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, Saudi Prince Rejects Talks With Iran, New York Times. (2017) A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Systems Architecture
AbbreviationJ. Syst. Arch.
ISSN (print)1383-7621
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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