How to format your references using the Journal of Systems Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Systems Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.E. Gottschling, Molecular biology. Fragile delivery to the genome, Science. 337 (2012) 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.I. Saye, J.A. Sethian, Multiscale modeling of membrane rearrangement, drainage, and rupture in evolving foams, Science. 340 (2013) 720–724.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Brookmeyer, E. Johnson, R. Bollinger, Public health vaccination policies for containing an anthrax outbreak, Nature. 432 (2004) 901–904.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. van de Loosdrecht, A. Bouzouggar, L. Humphrey, C. Posth, N. Barton, A. Aximu-Petri, B. Nickel, S. Nagel, E.H. Talbi, M.A. El Hajraoui, S. Amzazi, J.-J. Hublin, S. Pääbo, S. Schiffels, M. Meyer, W. Haak, C. Jeong, J. Krause, Pleistocene North African genomes link Near Eastern and sub-Saharan African human populations, Science. 360 (2018) 548–552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Spector, Understanding Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
E. Sala, Radiology for Surgeons in Clinical Practice, Springer, London, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Chen, H. Yu, DNA-Based Nanotechnology Biosensors for Surgical Diagnosis, in: T.J. Webster (Ed.), Nanotechnology Enabled In Situ Sensors for Monitoring Health, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 75–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Systems Architecture.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Seven Myths About The Brain That Most People Believe, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Rail Security: Some Actions Taken to Enhance Passenger and Freight Rail Security, but Significant Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Qian, Characterization of Transcription-independent APC Tumor Suppressor Function in Apoptosis, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kelly, Books in Brief: Fiction, New York Times. (2000) 721.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Systems Architecture
AbbreviationJ. Syst. Arch.
ISSN (print)1383-7621
ScopeHardware and Architecture

Other styles