How to format your references using the Digital Journalism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Journalism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Merrow, Martha. 2010. “Journal Club. A Chronobiologist Makes Sense of Circadian Dysfunction in Illness.” Nature 467 (7312): 135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butler, Alison, and Moriah Sandy. 2009. “Mechanistic Considerations of Halogenating Enzymes.” Nature 460 (7257): 848–854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Bin, Zu-Huan Yu, and Shao-Ming Fei. 2013. “Geometry of Quantum Computation with Qutrits.” Scientific Reports 3: 2594.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Diehl, Michael R., Kechun Zhang, Heun Jin Lee, and David A. Tirrell. 2006. “Engineering Cooperativity in Biomotor-Protein Assemblies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5766): 1468–1471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
“MAX” Maxfield, Clive, and Alvin Brown. 2005. The Definitive Guide to How Computers Do Math. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Miksch, Silvia, David Riaño, and Annette ten Teije, eds. 2014. Knowledge Representation for Health Care: 6th International Workshop, KR4HC 2014, Held as Part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 21, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 8903. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lekkas, Theodoros. 2014. “Legal Pirates Ltd: Home Computing Cultures in Early 1980s Greece.” In Hacking Europe: From Computer Cultures to Demoscenes, edited by Gerard Alberts and Ruth Oldenziel, 73–103. History of Computing. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Journalism.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2017. “The Quake That’ll Take Out Los Angeles May Be Around The Corner.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Undergraduate Helicopter Pilot Training: Consolidation Could Yield Significant Savings. FPCD-80-37. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perfitt, Timothy. 2009. “Megaphone: Fault Tolerant, Scalable, and Trustworthy Peer-to-Peer Microblogging.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2008. “Justices Bar Death Penalty For the Rape of a Child.” New York Times, June 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Merrow 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Merrow 2010; Butler and Sandy 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butler and Sandy 2009)
  • Three authors: (Li, Yu, and Fei 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Diehl et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Journalism
ISSN (print)2167-0811
ISSN (online)2167-082X

Other styles