How to format your references using the Digital Journalism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Journalism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2003. “California Dreaming: San Diego.” Nature 422 (6928): 240–241.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hussain, Natasha K., and Morgan Sheng. 2005. “Neuroscience. Making Synapses: A Balancing Act.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5713): 1207–1208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shin, Sung-Bong, Maxim Golovkin, and Anireddy S. N. Reddy. 2014. “A Pollen-Specific Calmodulin-Binding Protein, NPG1, Interacts with Putative Pectate Lyases.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5263.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nogués-Bravo, D., M. B. Araújo, T. Romdal, and C. Rahbek. 2008. “Scale Effects and Human Impact on the Elevational Species Richness Gradients.” Nature 453 (7192): 216–219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boutillier, Sophie, Denis Carré, and Nadine Levratto. 2016. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mancini, Daniela, Renata Paola Dameri, and Elisa Bonollo, eds. 2016. Strengthening Information and Control Systems: The Synergy Between Information Technology and Accounting Models. Vol. 14. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Croog, Victoria J., and Michael J. Zelefsky. 2009. “Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction Following Radiation Therapy.” In Sexual Function in the Prostate Cancer Patient, edited by John P. Mulhall, 55–67. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Journalism.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “What Is The Smallest Thing In The Universe?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. National Test Facility: Civilian Agency Use of Supercomputers Not Feasible. AIMD-95-28. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai, He. 2008. “High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw, N. 2015. “A Slippery New Rule for Gauging Fiscal Policy.” New York Times, February 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003; Hussain and Sheng 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hussain and Sheng 2005)
  • Three authors: (Shin, Golovkin, and Reddy 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nogués-Bravo et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Journalism
ISSN (print)2167-0811
ISSN (online)2167-082X

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