How to format your references using the Digital Journalism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Journalism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, J. Paul. 2013. “Neuroscience. RNA That Gets RAN in Neurodegeneration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6125): 1282–1283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice, William R., and Urban Friberg. 2008. “Genetics. Functionally Degenerate--Y Not So?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5859): 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
MacDonald, M. P., G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia. 2003. “Microfluidic Sorting in an Optical Lattice.” Nature 426 (6965): 421–424.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yong, Shan-May, Mei-Li Lim, Chian-Ming Low, and Boon-Seng Wong. 2014. “Reduced Neuronal Signaling in the Ageing Apolipoprotein-E4 Targeted Replacement Female Mice.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6580.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph, Charles L., and Santiago Bernal. 2016. Modern Devices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Borisov, Nikita, and Ian Goldberg, eds. 2008. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 8th International Symposium, PETS 2008 Leuven, Belgium, July 23-25, 2008 Proceedings. Vol. 5134. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Saariluoma, Pertti, José J. Cañas, and Jaana Leikas. 2016. “Emotions, Motives, Individuals, and Cultures in Interaction.” In Designing for Life: A Human Perspective on Technology Development, edited by José J. Cañas and Jaana Leikas, 137–170. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Journalism.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “World’s First Head Transplant Will Use Virtual Reality To Prepare Patients.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. General Services Issues. OCG-93-28TR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Constantine, Stephanie. 2013. “Supportive Services for Transitional and Emancipated Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “Patriots’ Super Bowl Victory Features a Big Comeback, Just Not for N.F.L. Ratings.” New York Times, February 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Taylor 2013; Rice and Friberg 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rice and Friberg 2008)
  • Three authors: (MacDonald, Spalding, and Dholakia 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yong et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Journalism
ISSN (print)2167-0811
ISSN (online)2167-082X

Other styles