How to format your references using the The Journal of Wildlife Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Wildlife Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Read, P. 2011. Saturn: storm-clouds brooding on towering heights. Nature 475:44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milne, S., and R. Hinde. 2005. Obituary: Joseph Rotblat 1908-2005. Nature 437:634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakami, K. S., S. Masuda, and S. A. Darst. 2002. Structural basis of transcription initiation: RNA polymerase holoenzyme at 4 A resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296:1280–1284.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Freedman, K. J., S. R. Haq, J. B. Edel, P. Jemth, and M. J. Kim. 2013. Single molecule unfolding and stretching of protein domains inside a solid-state nanopore by electric field. Scientific reports 3:1638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I. 2006. A Manager’s Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Joshi, Y. M., and S. Khandekar, editors. 2015. Nanoscale and Microscale Phenomena: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering, Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Gant, C., G. D. Laverman, and G. Navis. 2015. MRA Inhibition in CKD: More Than Salt and Water. Pages 41–50 in D. Goldsmith, A. Covic, and J. Spaak, editors. Cardio-Renal Clinical Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Wildlife Management.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Genetic Discovery Boosts Theory That Depression Has Its Roots In Biology. IFLScience. IFLScience. <>. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Prisoners Receiving Social Security and Other Federal Retirement, Disability, and Education Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Childers, J. W. 2017. Evaluating parental opinions of healthy snack guidelines for youth soccer. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Arvedlund, E. E., and SOPHIA KISHKOVSKY; C.J. Chivers contributed reporting for this article. 2004. After a Spate of Bombings, Moscow’s Full of Foreboding. New York Times2 September 2004:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Read 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Milne and Hinde 2005, Read 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milne and Hinde 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Freedman et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Wildlife Management
AbbreviationJ. Wildl. Manage.
ISSN (print)0022-541X
ISSN (online)1937-2817
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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