How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cao YC (2011) Materials science. Impurities enhance semiconductor nanocrystal performance. Science 332:48–49
A journal article with 2 authors
Wade J, Wood BJ (2001) The Earth’s “missing” niobium may be in the core. Nature 409:75–78
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkelstein IJ, Visnapuu M-L, Greene EC (2010) Single-molecule imaging reveals mechanisms of protein disruption by a DNA translocase. Nature 468:983–987
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cirak F, Cisternas JE, Cuitiño AM, et al (2003) Oscillatory thermomechanical instability of an ultrathin catalyst. Science 300:1932–1936

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouchet O (2012) Wireless Optical Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ackers P, Reid AJ (2016) Alternatives to State-Socialism in Britain: Other Worlds of Labour in the Twentieth Century. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Liddy ED (2014) iSchools & the iSchool at Syracuse University. In: Chen C, Larsen R (eds) Library and Information Sciences: Trends and Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 31–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) We Just Learned A Lot Of Unexpected Things About Jupiter. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Positive Train Control: Additional Authorities Could Benefit Implementation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Neilson DH (2009) Structured interactions and collective outcomes essays on production and finance. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Harry Styles Tops Billboard Chart. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Metallurgy
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Met.
ISSN (print)2199-3823
ISSN (online)2199-3831

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