How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D (2008) Big data: Data wrangling. Nature 455:15
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang X, Lu X (2014) Drastic change in China’s lakes and reservoirs over the past decades. Sci Rep 4:6041
A journal article with 3 authors
Yohe G, Andronova N, Schlesinger M (2004) Climate. To hedge or not against an uncertain climate future? Science 306:416–417
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu F, Rugheimer P, Mateeva E, et al (2002) Nanomechanics: response of a strained semiconductor structure. Nature 416:498

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young GC (2010) Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bandt O de, Knetsch T, Peñalosa J, Zollino F (2010) Housing Markets in Europe: A Macroeconomic Perspective. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Demeuse M, Baye A (2007) Measuring and Comparing the Equity of Education Systems in Europe. In: Soguel NC, Jaccard P (eds) Governance and Performance of Education Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 85–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Diabetes Cases In The U.K. Up 60% In The Last Decade. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glazer K (2015) Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudziak ML (2012) This War Is Not Over Yet. New York Times A31

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Metallurgy
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Met.
ISSN (print)2199-3823
ISSN (online)2199-3831

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