How to format your references using the Fire Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fire Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bennett CL (2005) Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein’s theories. Science 307:879–884
A journal article with 2 authors
Marcus DM, Grollman AP (2006) Science and government. Review for NCCAM is overdue. Science 313:301–302
A journal article with 3 authors
Bragg AE, Cavanagh MC, Schwartz BJ (2008) Linear response breakdown in solvation dynamics induced by atomic electron-transfer reactions. Science 321:1817–1822
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen M, Wang Y-H, Wang Y, et al (2006) Dendritic cell apoptosis in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Science 311:1160–1164

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simpkins CA, Simpkins AM (2011) Zen Meditation in Psychotherapy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yalcin S, Öberg K (2015) Neuroendocrine Tumours: Diagnosis and Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sakawa M, Yano H, Nishizaki I (2013) Stochastic Linear Programming. In: Yano H, Nishizaki I (eds) Linear and Multiobjective Programming with Fuzzy Stochastic Extensions. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 149–196

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fire Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) 3-D Printing Gives Helping Hand for Children. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Communications Commission: Implementation of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Browning A (2012) An electronic on-board recorder for intermodal drayage operations. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maslin J (2017) There’s a New Detective in Town, and She’s Fierce. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFire Technology
AbbreviationFire Technol.
ISSN (print)0015-2684
ISSN (online)1572-8099
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Materials Science

Other styles