How to format your references using the Fire Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fire Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2013) Chronobiology: stepping out of time. Nature 497:S10-2
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Y, Daum PH (2002) Anthropogenic aerosols. Indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing. Nature 419:580–581
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim JH, Haule K, Kotliar G (2007) Modeling the localized-to-itinerant electronic transition in the heavy fermion system CeIrIn5. Science 318:1615–1617
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Semaw S, Simpson SW, Quade J, et al (2005) Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 433:301–305

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hwang R-BR (2012) Periodic Structures. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Sirenko YK, Ström S (2010) Modern Theory of Gratings: Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Regine G, Atzori M, Fabbri R (2012) Mdc in ecografia pediatrica e nello studio dei reflussi vescico-uretrali: «cistosonografia». In: Atzori M, Fabbri R (eds) Ecocontrastografia dell’apparato urinario. Springer, Milano, pp 45–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fire Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) The Science Of Why Bacon Smells So Damn Good. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Survival of Higher Education in the Years Ahead. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fuentez OL (2010) Proposition 21: Juveniles tried as adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Oakley Rejects Plea Bargain And Demands Day in Court. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFire Technology
AbbreviationFire Technol.
ISSN (print)0015-2684
ISSN (online)1572-8099
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Materials Science

Other styles