How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ott S. Chemistry. Ironing out hydrogen storage. Science. 2011;333(6050):1714-1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Discher DE, Eisenberg A. Polymer vesicles. Science. 2002;297(5583):967-973.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kinoshita T, Wenger T, Weiss DS. A quantum Newton’s cradle. Nature. 2006;440(7086):900-903.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Hedges LO, Jack RL, Garrahan JP, Chandler D. Dynamic order-disorder in atomistic models of structural glass formers. Science. 2009;323(5919):1309-1313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bender HF. Das Gefahrstoffbuch. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2002.
An edited book
1.
Ishaaya I, Horowitz AR, eds. Biorational Control of Arthropod Pests: Application and Resistance Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
AL-Hussaini EK, Ahsanullah M. Family of Exponentiated Burr Type XII Distributions. In: Ahsanullah M, ed. Exponentiated Distributions. Atlantis Studies in Probability and Statistics. Paris: Atlantis Press; 2015:103-122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Research.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. Gene Cernan, The Last Person To Set Foot On The Moon, Dies At 82. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/gene-cernan-last-person-to-set-foot-on-the-moon-dies-at-82/. Published January 17, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Three Studies at the Local Level. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ho T. The influence of physical activity and unsafe neighborhoods on the development of gestational diabetes among women in California. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gates A. A Showman, His Stage Life and His Unhappy End. New York Times. February 7, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Research
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0022-4804
ScopeSurgery

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