How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarkar CA. Cell signaling. Concentrating (on) native proteins to control cell fate. Science. 2013;341(6152):1349-1351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gentner TQ, Margoliash D. Neuronal populations and single cells representing learned auditory objects. Nature. 2003;424(6949):669-674.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakami S, Nagaosa N, Zhang S-C. Dissipationless quantum spin current at room temperature. Science. 2003;301(5638):1348-1351.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen C-L, Qi J, Tao J, Zuckermann RN, DeYoreo JJ. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6266.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yoder CH, Leber PA, Thomsen MW. The Bridge to Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Nalda R de, Bañares L, eds. Ultrafast Phenomena in Molecular Sciences: Femtosecond Physics and Chemistry. Vol 107. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Bornstein S, Han G-W, Hoot K, Lu S-L, Wang X-J. TGFβ-Mediated Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis in Skin and Head-and-Neck Cancer. In: Tachikawa T, Nose K, Ohmori T, Adachi M, eds. New Trends in the Molecular and Biological Basis for Clinical Oncology. Springer Japan; 2009:69-80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. Dominance-Asserting “Power Poses” Are Probably As Ineffective As They Are Awkward. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Enforcement Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manjounes CK. An adult accelerated degree program: Student and instructor perspectives and factors that affect retention. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M. In Pursuit of Influence (and Muggers): Farrell’s 42 Years in Politics. New York Times. August 28, 2017:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Research
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0022-4804

Other styles