How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sutherland WJ. Parallel extinction risk and global distribution of languages and species. Nature. 2003;423(6937):276-279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sattler A, Parkin G. Cleaving carbon-carbon bonds by inserting tungsten into unstrained aromatic rings. Nature. 2010;463(7280):523-526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Su D, Dou S, Wang G. Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes for Li-O2 batteries. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5767.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Okamoto H, Eguchi R, Hamao S, et al. An extended phenacene-type molecule, [8]phenacene: synthesis and transistor application. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean D. Understanding Aerodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Buchanan MT, Gellel AM, eds. Global Perspectives on Catholic Religious Education in Schools. 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bergmann R. Ambient Intelligence for Decision Making in Fire Service Organizations. In: Schiele B, Dey AK, Gellersen H, et al., eds. Ambient Intelligence: European Conference, AmI 2007, Darmstadt, Germany, November 7-10, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2007:73-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Indigenous Medicine – A Fusion Of Ritual And Remedy. IFLScience. Published January 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Reform Initiatives Can Help Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazon WE. The Effect of the Breath BuilderTM on Various Lung Functions and Musical Performance Abilities of Clarinet Players. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM, Saulny S. A Tragedy in Detroit, With a Reality TV Crew in Tow. New York Times. May 22, 2010:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Research
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0022-4804

Other styles