How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Ghosts in the machine. Nature. 2004;427(6977):867.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mastrandrea MD, Schneider SH. Probabilistic integrated assessment of “dangerous” climate change. Science. 2004;304(5670):571-575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Micol-Ponce R, Aguilera V, Ponce MR. A genetic screen for suppressors of a hypomorphic allele of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE1. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5533.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baumberger F, Auwärter W, Greber T, Osterwalder J. Electron coherence in a melting lead monolayer. Science. 2004;306(5705):2221-2224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ambaum MHP. Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Horowitz AR, Ishaaya I, eds. Advances in Insect Control and Resistance Management. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hardin CS, Taylor AD. The Denumerable Setting: One-Way Visibility. In: Taylor AD, ed. The Mathematics of Coordinated Inference: A Study of Generalized Hat Problems. Developments in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing; 2013:29-47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Research.

Blog post
Hamilton K. A New Twist To Whodunnit In Science’s Famous Piltdown Man Hoax. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems Associated With Developing Large, Complex Data Processing Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu B. Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. 3 Are Charged With Selling Ivory Objects Despite Ban. New York Times. September 23, 2016:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Research
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0022-4804

Other styles