How to format your references using the Applied Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Zaanen, Quantum critical electron systems: the uncharted sign worlds, Science. 319 (2008) 1205–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Picollo, M. Pusch, Chloride/proton antiporter activity of mammalian CLC proteins ClC-4 and ClC-5, Nature. 436 (2005) 420–423.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Rees, B. Koppelman, N. Davison, Scientific steps to nuclear disarmament, Nature. 465 (2010) 290–291.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Parthasarathy, D. Livelybrooks, D. Johnson, C. Page, S. Boettcher, J.D. Cohen, E. Corwin, M. Deutsch, M. Haley, R. Haydock, S.-Y. Liu, M. Lonergan, G. Nazin, R. Taylor, D. Tyler, H. Wang, NSF program benefits schools in need, Science. 332 (2011) 173–174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Waine, Obesity and Weight Management in Primary Care, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
R. Riedl, Fundamentals of NeuroIS: Information Systems and the Brain, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
K.-H. Yoo, U. Gretzel, M. Zanker, Receiver and Context Factors, in: U. Gretzel, M. Zanker (Eds.), Persuasive Recommender Systems: Conceptual Background and Implications, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Surface Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch Elon Musk’s Moving “Solid Metal Snake” Charge A Tesla Car, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Management Challenges: Human Capital and Other Critical Areas Need to be Addressed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Luo, Evaluation of the flicker effect as a generative strategy in enhancing computer -based instruction (CBI) of visual recognition and classification, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Burfoot, G.A. Hirsch, The Honorable Clan Of the Long-Distance Runner, New York Times. (2012) SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Surface Science
AbbreviationAppl. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0169-4332
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

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