How to format your references using the Applied Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Krupic, Brain crystals, Science. 350 (2015) 47.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.M. Winslow, G.R. Crabtree, Immunology. Decoding calcium signaling, Science. 307 (2005) 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Melcák, A. Hoelz, G. Blobel, Structure of Nup58/45 suggests flexible nuclear pore diameter by intermolecular sliding, Science. 315 (2007) 1729–1732.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.T.S. Lam, A. Belenguer, S.L. Roberts, C. Naumann, T. Jarrosson, S. Otto, J.K.M. Sanders, Amplification of acetylcholine-binding catenanes from dynamic combinatorial libraries, Science. 308 (2005) 667–669.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F.W. Danby, Acne, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
C. Baroncelli, N. Ballerio, eds., WCOM (World Class Operations Management): Why You Need More Than Lean, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Fallon, Celebgate: Two Methodological Approaches to the 2014 Celebrity Photo Hacks, in: T. Tiropanis, A. Vakali, L. Sartori, P. Burnap (Eds.), Internet Science: Second International Conference, INSCI 2015, Brussels, Belgium, May 27-29, 2015, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Surface Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Greatest Taboo? The Surprising Truth Of What The Bible Says About Incest, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aircraft Noise: Status and Management of FAA’s West Coast Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.Y. Kino, My Concierge MD, Inc. a business plan, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.H. Loomis, Making the Restaurant Part of the Family, New York Times. (2014) D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Surface Science
AbbreviationAppl. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0169-4332
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

Other styles