How to format your references using the Applied Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Du Pasquier, Immunology. Insects diversify one molecule to serve two systems, Science. 309 (2005) 1826–1827.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Fritz, P.M.H. Kroneck, MICROBIOLOGY. Sulfate to go, Science. 350 (2015) 1476–1477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y.C. Cao, R. Jin, C.A. Mirkin, Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection, Science. 297 (2002) 1536–1540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhang, M.L. Baker, G.F. Schröder, N.R. Douglas, S. Reissmann, J. Jakana, M. Dougherty, C.J. Fu, M. Levitt, S.J. Ludtke, J. Frydman, W. Chiu, Mechanism of folding chamber closure in a group II chaperonin, Nature. 463 (2010) 379–383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Savaux, Y. Louët, MMSE-Based Algorithm for Joint Signal Detection, Channel and Noise Variance Estimation for OFDM Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
E. Triantaphyllou, G. Felici, eds., Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Approaches Based on Rule Induction Techniques, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
C.W. Ambruster, A.B. Hull, R.H. Koch, R.J. Mitchell, The Pierce-Blitzstein Photometer, in: E.F. Milone, C. Sterken (Eds.), Astronomical Photometry: Past, Present, and Future, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 85–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Surface Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Chris Hadfield Performs ‘Space Oddity,’ IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Operations: NASA Efforts to Develop and Deploy Advanced Spacecraft Computers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.W. Horaist, Estimating Seed Bank Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Louisiana Coastal Zone, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Australia’s Property Boom Makes Publisher a Target, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Surface Science
AbbreviationAppl. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0169-4332
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

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