How to format your references using the Applied Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.A. Benner, Chemistry. Redesigning genetics, Science. 306 (2004) 625–626.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.G. Nisbet, N.H. Sleep, The habitat and nature of early life, Nature. 409 (2001) 1083–1091.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.T. Parr, C. Economou, S.B. Herzon, A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials, Nature. 525 (2015) 507–510.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Osama, A. Najam, S. Kassim-Lakha, S. Zulfiqar Gilani, C. King, Pakistan’s reform experiment, Nature. 461 (2009) 38–39.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Jarry, J.N. Beneat, Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
J. Cordeiro, A. Ranchordas, B. Shishkov, eds., Software and Data Technologies: 4th International Conference, ICSOFT 2009, Sofia, Bulgaria, July 26-29, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
W.T. Gordon, Foot and Ankle Injuries, in: L.B. Bone, C.N. Mamczak (Eds.), Front Line Extremity and Orthopaedic Surgery: A Practical Guide, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Surface Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Captive Chimpanzees To Be Classified As Endangered, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Survey of NASA’s Lessons Learned Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.D. Layer, Structured plasma waveguides and deep EUV generation enabled by intense laser-cluster interactions, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess, D. Ivory, S. Eder, In Age of Trump, Hard Right Turn On Social Issues, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Surface Science
AbbreviationAppl. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0169-4332
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

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