How to format your references using the Applied Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Z.B. Lakhdar, Global voices of science. Following the light: opening doors to science in Tunisia, Science. 310 (2005) 1435–1437.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Vukusic, I. Hooper, Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies, Science. 310 (2005) 1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Mito, J.G. Henikoff, S. Henikoff, Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains, Science. 315 (2007) 1408–1411.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.B. Moore, M. John, I.R. James, F.T. Christiansen, C.S. Witt, S.A. Mallal, Evidence of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA-restricted immune responses at a population level, Science. 296 (2002) 1439–1443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Prutchi, M. Norris, Design and Development of Medical Electronic Instrumentation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
R.C. Talley, R.J.V. Montgomery, eds., Caregiving Across the Lifespan: Research • Practice • Policy, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Tveito, H.P. Langtangen, B.F. Nielsen, X. Cai, The Method of Least Squares, in: H.P. Langtangen, B.F. Nielsen, X. Cai (Eds.), Elements of Scientific Computing, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 147–193.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Surface Science.

Blog post
R. Andrews, India Successfully Deploys 104 Satellites In World Record-Breaking Rocket Launch, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.T. Cox, Prenatal cocaine: Effects on neonatal vocalizations, cue-induced maternal response, and brain development, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, Rebelling Against a Charmed Life, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Surface Science
AbbreviationAppl. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0169-4332
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

Other styles