How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. 2004. “Drug discovery in reverse.” Nature, 428 (6979): 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abedin, M., and N. King. 2008. “The premetazoan ancestry of cadherins.” Science, 319 (5865): 946–948.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffin, D. M., D. S. Hoffman, and P. L. Strick. 2015. “Corticomotoneuronal cells are ‘functionally tuned.’” Science, 350 (6261): 667–670.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, C., C. Wu, X. Zhou, T. Han, X. Xin, J. Wu, J. Zhang, and S. Guo. 2013. “Enhancing cell nucleus accumulation and DNA cleavage activity of anti-cancer drug via graphene quantum dots.” Sci. Rep., 3: 2852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neave, E. H. 2009. Modern Financial Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nguyen, N. T., R. P. Blackstone, J. M. Morton, J. Ponce, and R. J. Rosenthal (Eds.). 2015. The ASMBS Textbook of Bariatric Surgery: Volume 1: Bariatric Surgery. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barreto, P. S., P. H. P. de Carvalho, R. D. Oliveira, and M. P. Ceppo. 2008. “Network Planning and Adaptive Routing for Multimedia Traffic.” Challenges for Next Generation Network Operations and Service Management: 11th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium, APNOMS 2008, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Y. Ma, D. Choi, and S. Ata, eds., 31–40. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016. “World’s Oldest Water Discovered 3 Kilometers Underground.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Business Systems Modernization: DOD Continues to Improve Institutional Approach, but Further Steps Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beeler, M. C. 2010. “Disordered Ultracold Two-Dimensional Bose Gases.” Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. 2015. “Double Lives.” New York Times, July 9, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Abedin and King 2008; Smith 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abedin and King 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Eng. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0733-9445
ISSN (online)1943-541X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

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