How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mahadevan, M. S. (2010). “Genetics. Exposing a DUX tale.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5999), 1607–1608.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavier, L. L., and Manatschal, G. (2006). “A mechanism to thin the continental lithosphere at magma-poor margins.” Nature, 440(7082), 324–328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita, F., Fukuyama, E., and Omura, K. (2004). “Estimation of fault strength: reconstruction of stress before the 1995 Kobe earthquake.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 261–263.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Srinivasan, G., Whitehouse, M. J., Weber, I., and Yamaguchi, A. (2007). “The crystallization age of eucrite zircon.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 345–347.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, D. W., and Woodward, J. L. (2010). Release. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Furuichi, T., and Thompson, J. (Eds.). (2008). The Bonobos: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kollmar, O., Menger, M. D., and Schilling, M. K. (2011). “Role of CXC Chemokines and Receptors in Liver Metastasis – Impact on Liver Resection-Induced Engraftment and Tumor Growth.” Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management, Cancer Metastasis – Biology and Treatment, P. Brodt, ed., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 129–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). “Researchers Have Just Discovered There Are 3 Subspecies Of Snow Leopard.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). NASA Commercial Crew Program: Schedule Pressure Increases as Contractors Delay Key Events. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ethridge, G. (2012). “Determining the variables that contribute to job tenure for people with psychiatric disabilities participating in an evidenced-based supported employment program.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017). “Right-Wing Provocateur Is Given More Fodder for His Conspiracies.” New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mahadevan 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lavier and Manatschal 2006; Mahadevan 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lavier and Manatschal 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Srinivasan et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Eng. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0733-9445
ISSN (online)1943-541X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

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