How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyers, C. L. 2008. “The cancer biomarker problem.” Nature, 452 (7187): 548–552.
A journal article with 2 authors
Veiseh, O., and R. Langer. 2015. “Diabetes: A smart insulin patch.” Nature, 524 (7563): 39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer, D. L., R. A. Berner, and J. Park. 2007. “Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years.” Nature, 446 (7135): 530–532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shim, H.-W., A.-H. Lim, J.-C. Kim, E. Jang, S.-D. Seo, G.-H. Lee, T. D. Kim, and D.-W. Kim. 2013. “Scalable one-pot bacteria-templating synthesis route toward hierarchical, porous-Co3O4 superstructures for supercapacitor electrodes.” Sci. Rep., 3: 2325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A. 2005. Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Loftsson, H., E. Rögnvaldsson, and S. Helgadóttir (Eds.). 2010. Advances in Natural Language Processing: 7th International Conference on NLP, IceTAL 2010, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 16-18, 2010. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomar, V., T. Qu, D. K. Dubey, D. Verma, and Y. Zhang. 2015. “Multiscaling for Molecular Models to Predict Lab Scale Sample Properties: A Review of Phenomenological Models.” Multiscale Characterization of Biological Systems: Spectroscopy and Modeling, T. Qu, D. K. Dubey, D. Verma, and Y. Zhang, eds., 61–80. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2017. “Seawater Can Reach Right To The Edge Of The Earth’s Core.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs: Distribution of Fiscal Year 2000 Indian Reservation Roads Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neal, L. 2016. “What’s in Your Toolbox?: Examining Tool Choices at Two Middle and Late Woodland-Period Sites on Florida’s Central Gulf Coast.” Doctoral dissertation. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2016. “Banality and Trouble? They’re Neighbors.” New York Times, December 7, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sawyers 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Sawyers 2008; Veiseh and Langer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Veiseh and Langer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Shim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Eng. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0733-9445
ISSN (online)1943-541X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

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