How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Swinderen, B. (2007). “Attention-like processes in Drosophila require short-term memory genes.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5818), 1590–1593.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ouellette, A. J., and Selsted, M. E. (2012). “Immunology. HD6 defensin nanonets.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6093), 420–421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lam, F. H., Steger, D. J., and O’Shea, E. K. (2008). “Chromatin decouples promoter threshold from dynamic range.” Nature, 453(7192), 246–250.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yancheva, G., Nowaczyk, N. R., Mingram, J., Dulski, P., Schettler, G., Negendank, J. F. W., Liu, J., Sigman, D. M., Peterson, L. C., and Haug, G. H. (2007). “Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East Asian monsoon.” Nature, 445(7123), 74–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xing, B., Vecitis, C. D., and Senesi, N. (2016). Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment: Biophysicochemical Processes and Toxicity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dunphy, C. H. (Ed.). (2010). Molecular Pathology of Hematolymphoid Diseases. Molecular Pathology Library, Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Erverdi, N., and Motro, M. (2015). “Distraction with Custom-Made Appliances on a Straight Vector.” Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis: ArchWise Appliance and Technique, M. Motro, ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 47–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). “Livestock Painkillers are Devastating Vulture Populations.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Financial Operations and Activities at Three State-Chartered Agencies in Western Kentucky. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Correa, L. (2015). “Urban-rural differences in overweight and obese status among adolescents.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2016). “For the Record, a Conductor Talks With an Author.” New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van Swinderen 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ouellette and Selsted 2012; van Swinderen 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ouellette and Selsted 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yancheva et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Eng. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0733-9445
ISSN (online)1943-541X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

Other styles