How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller, B. (2011). “Physics. The limits of ordinary matter.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1513–1514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldsby, D. L., and Tullis, T. E. (2011). “Flash heating leads to low frictional strength of crustal rocks at earthquake slip rates.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6053), 216–218.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., and Jiang, W.-L. (2014). “Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis.” Scientific reports, 4, 4731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oppenheimer, M., O’Neill, B. C., Webster, M., and Agrawala, S. (2007). “Climate change. The limits of consensus.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5844), 1505–1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rahman, R. O. A., Rakhimov, R. Z., Rakhimova, N. R., and Ojovan, M. I. (2014). Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hlavínek, P., and Zeleňáková, M. (Eds.). (2015). Storm Water Management: Examples from Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. Springer Hydrogeology, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Siddique, R., and Iqbal Khan, M. (2011). “Metakaolin.” Supplementary Cementing Materials, Engineering Materials, M. I. Khan, ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 175–230.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017). “This Disturbing Video Shows How Solid Earth Can Behave Like A Liquid During An Earthquake.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huynh, T. N. (2015). “The healthy eating, aging and living program for older adults at union station homeless services: A grant proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2014). “Hills to Discovery Grow Steeper.” New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Goldsby and Tullis 2011; Müller 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldsby and Tullis 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Oppenheimer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Eng. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0733-9445
ISSN (online)1943-541X
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

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