How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ambrose, S.H. (2006) Anthropology. A tool for all seasons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314, 930–931
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, J.-Y. & Huang, D.-Y. (2002) A possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath (arrow worm). Science (New York, N.Y.) 298, 187
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J.-T., Chen, C. & Kawazoe, Y. (2013) New carbon allotropes with helical chains of complementary chirality connected by ethene-type π-conjugation. Scientific reports 3, 3077
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Néda, Z., Ravasz, E., Brechet, Y., et al. (2000) The sound of many hands clapping. Nature 403, 849–850

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edgerton, M. (2013) A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leitner, S. & Wall, F. (Eds.) (2014) Artificial Economics and Self Organization: Agent-Based Approaches to Economics and Social Systems, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Peek, M.K., Perez, N. & Stimpson, J.P. (2012) Culture and Couples: Does Partner Disability Differentially Infl uence Mental Health Across Mexico and the US? In: Aging, Health, and Longevity in the Mexican-Origin Population. Eds J.L. Angel, F. Torres-Gil, et al. Springer US. pp 51–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Scientist At Work: Searching For Tiny Neutrinos In The South Pole’s Thick Ice IFLScience [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) D.C. Tuition Assistance Grants: Program May Increase College Choices, but a Few Program Procedures May Hinder Grant Receipt for Some Residents (No. GAO-02-265). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escamilla, D. (2012) How performance following the implementation of a new structure affects employee engagement (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010) Rematch 45 Years In the Making. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ambrose 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ambrose 2006; Chen & Huang 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Huang 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Néda et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

Other styles