How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeley, T.D. (2008) Obituary: martin lindauer (1918-2008). Nature 456, 718
A journal article with 2 authors
Pons, A.J. & Karma, A. (2010) Helical crack-front instability in mixed-mode fracture. Nature 464, 85–89
A journal article with 3 authors
Tao, C., Cullen, W.G. & Williams, E.D. (2010) Visualizing the electron scattering force in nanostructures. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328, 736–740
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Kimel, A.V., Kirilyuk, A., Tsvetkov, A., et al. (2004) Laser-induced ultrafast spin reorientation in the antiferromagnet TmFeO3. Nature 429, 850–853

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide, P. (2014) Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Daniilidis, K., Maragos, P. & Paragios, N. (Eds.) (2010) Computer Vision – ECCV 2010: 11th European Conference on Computer Vision, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 5-11, 2010, Proceedings, Part III, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lamantia, F., Radi, D. & Sbragia, L. (2016) Dynamic Modeling in Renewable Resource Exploitation. In: Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems, Tools and Applications for Economic Modelling: Lectures Given at the COST Training School on New Economic Complex Geography at Urbino, Italy, 17-19 September 2015, Springer Proceedings in Complexity. Eds G.I. Bischi, A. Panchuk, et al. Springer International Publishing. pp 257–289

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) Tooth-Derived Stem Cells Make Brain-Like Cells IFLScience [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Information Technology: Uncertainty Remains about the Bureau’s Readiness for a Key Decennial Census Test (No. GAO-17-221T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phelps-Hillen, J.L. (2017) Institutional Review Boards and Writing Studies Research: A Justice-Oriented Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hernández, J.C. (2013) From His Father’s Decline, de Blasio ‘Learned What Not to Do.’ New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seeley 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Pons & Karma 2010; Seeley 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pons & Karma 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kimel et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

Other styles