How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, M.S. (2007) Quarks and the cosmos. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, 59–61
A journal article with 2 authors
Roediger, H.L., 3rd & McDermott, K.B. (2011) Neuroscience. Remember when? Science (New York, N.Y.) 333, 47–48
A journal article with 3 authors
Serganov, A., Huang, L. & Patel, D.J. (2008) Structural insights into amino acid binding and gene control by a lysine riboswitch. Nature 455, 1263–1267
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Caro, G., Bourdon, B., Wood, B.J., et al. (2005) Trace-element fractionation in Hadean mantle generated by melt segregation from a magma ocean. Nature 436, 246–249

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Batten, L.M. (2013) Public Key Cryptography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alexander, M., D’Ambra, P., Belloum, A., et al. (Eds.) (2012) Euro-Par 2011: Parallel Processing Workshops: CCPI, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, HPCVirt, HPPC, HPSS, MDGS, ProPer, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Bordeaux, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Delot, T., Ilarri, S. & del Carmen Rodríguez-Hernández, M. (2014) Intelligent Transportation Systems – Maybe, But Where Are My Agents? In: Ad Hoc Networks: 6th International ICST Conference, ADHOCNETS 2014, Rhodes, Greece, August 18-19, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Eds N. Mitton, A. Gallais, et al. Springer International Publishing. pp 39–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Early Humans May Have Migrated Out Of Africa Through Egypt IFLScience [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Shared Resources Project: Evaluation Report (No. 142798). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lu, W.-Y. (2012) The performance practice of Buddhist baiqi in contemporary Taiwan (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002) Gallery? Studio? Home? Blurring the Lines, Artists Paint and Sell. New York Times G23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Roediger & McDermott 2011; Turner 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roediger & McDermott 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Caro et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

Other styles