How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2007) How to make it in Moscow. Nature 448, 983
A journal article with 2 authors
Froemke, R.C. & Dan, Y. (2002) Spike-timing-dependent synaptic modification induced by natural spike trains. Nature 416, 433–438
A journal article with 3 authors
Huo, C., Ouyang, J. & Yang, H. (2014) CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route. Scientific reports 4, 3682
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Tarduno, J., Bunge, H.-P., Sleep, N., et al. (2009) The bent Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track: inheriting the mantle wind. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, 50–53

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McAulay, A.D. (2011) Military Laser Technology for Defense. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gerdt, V.P., Koepf, W., Seiler, W.M., et al. (Eds.) (2015) Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing: 17th International Workshop, CASC 2015, Aachen, Germany, September 14-18, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ren, W., Song, J., Ma, Z., et al. (2009) Towards a Bio-inspired Security Framework for Mission-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Systems: 4th International Symposium, ISICA 2009, Huangshi, China, October 23-25, 2009. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Eds Z. Cai, Z. Li, et al. Springer. pp 35–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017) China To Build New National Park 60% Bigger Than Yellowstone To Save The Siberian Tiger IFLScience [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Government Programs and Organization Affecting Exports (No. ID-79-41). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Labelle, D.A. (2012) Perceived barriers to recruitment and retention in rural healthcare sectors: A physical therapist narrative inquiry (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich, N. (2014) The New Origin of the Species. New York Times MM24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2007; Froemke & Dan 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Froemke & Dan 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Tarduno et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

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