How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill, L.A.J. (2014) Biochemistry: succinate strikes. Nature 515, 350–351
A journal article with 2 authors
Lamb, S. & Davis, P. (2003) Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes. Nature 425, 792–797
A journal article with 3 authors
Bustamante, C.D., Burchard, E.G. & De la Vega, F.M. (2011) Genomics for the world. Nature 475, 163–165
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Bais, H.P., Prithiviraj, B., Jha, A.K., et al. (2005) Mediation of pathogen resistance by exudation of antimicrobials from roots. Nature 434, 217–221

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mack, I. (2014) Energy Trading and Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Stan-Lotter, H. & Fendrihan, S. (Eds.) (2012) Adaption of Microbial Life to Environmental Extremes: Novel Research Results and Application. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Proudfoot, A.E.I., Power, C.A., Schwarz, M., et al. (2007) Chemokines as drug targets. In: Chemokine Biology — Basic Research and Clinical Application: Volume II: Pathophysiology of Chemokines, Progress in Inflammation Research. Eds K. Neote, G.L. Letts, et al. Birkhäuser. pp 45–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015) Incredibly Preserved Frozen Cave Lions Found In Siberia IFLScience [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Financial Market Preparedness: Improvements Made, but More Action Needed to Prepare for Wide-Scale Disasters (No. GAO-04-984). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karmacharya, B. (2015) Population Dynamics of Northern Cardinal and Carolina Wren in an Urban Forest Fragment: Safe Refuge or Ecological Trap? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017) Hear a Song, Pick a Side. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lamb & Davis 2003; O’Neill 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lamb & Davis 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bais et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

Other styles