How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silk, J.B. (2014) Animal behaviour: The evolutionary roots of lethal conflict. Nature 513, 321–322
A journal article with 2 authors
Boesz, C. & Lloyd, N. (2008) Collaborations: investigating international misconduct. Nature 452, 686–687
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, R.-P., Chew, K.-H. & He, S. (2013) Dynamic control of collapse in a vortex Airy beam. Scientific reports 3, 1406
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Conboy, I.M., Conboy, M.J., Smythe, G.M., et al. (2003) Notch-mediated restoration of regenerative potential to aged muscle. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 1575–1577

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kolb, R.W. (2011) Sovereign Debt. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Song, Y. (2014) Tokamak Engineering Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering Series. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sousa, L.C., Castro, C.F. & António, C.C. (2012) Blood Flow Simulation and Applications. In: Technologies for Medical Sciences, Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics. Eds R.M. Natal Jorge, J.M.R.S. Tavares, et al. Springer Netherlands. pp 67–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014) Whooping Cough Reaches Epidemic Proportions in California IFLScience [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Federal Research Grants: Maintaining Public Accountability Without Inhibiting Creative Research (No. 094378). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boggs, B.D. (2012) An assessment of campus police departments across Mississippi’s public community and junior colleges (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010) Baubles And Bags To Customize. New York Times E7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Silk 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Boesz & Lloyd 2008; Silk 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boesz & Lloyd 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Conboy et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

Other styles