How to format your references using the Journal of Small Animal Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Animal Practice (JSAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chen, X. (2004) A microRNA as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, 2022–2025
A journal article with 2 authors
Slabbekoorn, H. & Peet, M. (2003) Ecology: Birds sing at a higher pitch in urban noise. Nature 424, 267
A journal article with 3 authors
Delsuc, F., Phillips, M.J. & Penny, D. (2003) Comment on “Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301, 1482; author reply 1482
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Lin, R., Ding, L., Casola, C., et al. (2007) Transposase-derived transcription factors regulate light signaling in Arabidopsis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, 1302–1305

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarowski, C.J. (2004) An Introduction to Numerical Analysis for Electrical and Computer Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sakai, K., Hirayama, N. & Tamura, R. (Eds.) (2007) Novel Optical Resolution Technologies, Topics in Current Chemistry. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mitchell, N., Schonberg, E. & Sevitsky, G. (2009) Making Sense of Large Heaps. In: ECOOP 2009 – Object-Oriented Programming: 23rd European Conference, Genoa, Italy, July 6-10, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Ed S. Drossopoulou. Springer. pp 77–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Animal Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) Why haven’t we encountered aliens yet? The answer could be climate change IFLScience’t-we-encountered-aliens-yet-answer-could-be-climate-change/ [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Follow up Review of Automatic Data Processing Activities Jet Propulsion Laboratory (No. B-162407(6)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, G. (2010) Roles of serotonin 2A receptor in a serotonin syndrome (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2017) Was It ‘Normal New York City Conversation’? Did Trump Speak Fast? New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chen 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chen 2004; Slabbekoorn & Peet 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Slabbekoorn & Peet 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Animal Practice
ISSN (print)0022-4510
ISSN (online)1748-5827

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