How to format your references using the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lu, K. Nanomaterials. Making strong nanomaterials ductile with gradients. Science 345: 1455–1456, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prasad, A and Pospíšil, P. Towards the two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from microbial, plant and animal cells. Sci Rep 3: 1211, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng, Y, Ye, Q, and Shen, W. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits. Sci Rep 4: 4915, 2014.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ricardo, A, Carrigan, MA, Olcott, AN, and Benner, SA. Borate minerals stabilize ribose. Science 303: 196, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wootton, RJ and Smith, C. Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Waymire, EC and Duan, J (eds.). Probability and Partial Differential Equations in Modern Applied Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Białecki, M and Czechowski, Z. On a Simple Stochastic Cellular Automaton with Avalanches: Simulation and Analytical Results. In: Synchronization and Triggering: from Fracture to Earthquake Processes: Laboratory, Field Analysis and Theories. Rubeis, V de, Czechowski, Z, and Teisseyre, R, eds. . Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010. pp. 63–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Elon Musk Biography Portrays A Brutal Character Driven By Lofty Dreams. IFLScience. , 2015.Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Noise: Implementation of FAA’s Expanded East Coast Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaudet, CJ. A General Approach to the Direct Detection of Dark Matter. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, MM. Next Act for an Editor Silver of Tongue (and Hair). New York Times. A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,4,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
AbbreviationJ. Strength Cond. Res.
ISSN (print)1064-8011
ISSN (online)1533-4287
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles