How to format your references using the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers, S. Forensics offers career opportunities for the Sherlock Holmes of the future--and the work is far from elementary. Nature 421: 872–873, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Borgdorff, AJ and Choquet, D. Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements. Nature 417: 649–653, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-David, O, Rubinstein, SM, and Fineberg, J. Slip-stick and the evolution of frictional strength. Nature 463: 76–79, 2010.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tweedy, L, Meier, B, Stephan, J, Heinrich, D, and Endres, RG. Distinct cell shapes determine accurate chemotaxis. Sci Rep 3: 2606, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya, S, Hameed, MFO, and Areed, NFF. Computational Liquid Crystal Photonics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Halwachs-Baumann, G (ed.). Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapy. Vienna: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Güell, JL, Torrabadella, M, Calatayud, M, Gris, O, Manero, F, and Gaytan, J. Limbal Stem Cell Culture. In: Cornea and External Eye Disease. Reinhard, T and Larkin, DFP, eds. . Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006. pp. 57–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Coming Soon: Brain Implant To Restore Memory. IFLScience. , 2014.Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Technological Progress and Proposed R&D Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, TL. Quantitative approach to technical performance measurement and technical risk analysis utilizing Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo simulation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, MW. U.S. Faulted Over Pay at Rescued Firms. New York Times. B4, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4–6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
AbbreviationJ. Strength Cond. Res.
ISSN (print)1064-8011
ISSN (online)1533-4287
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles