How to format your references using the Journal of Sleep Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sleep Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilmot, C.M. Biochemistry. An ancient and intimate partnership. Science, 2007, 316: 379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jang, H.-J., Cho, W.-J. Performance enhancement of capacitive-coupling dual-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor in ultra-thin-body. Sci. Rep., 2014, 4: 5284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagleman, D.M., Jacobson, J.E., Sejnowski, T.J. Perceived luminance depends on temporal context. Nature, 2004, 428: 854–856.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vyas, N., Walvekar, A., Tate, D., et al. Vertebrate Hedgehog is secreted on two types of extracellular vesicles with different signaling properties. Sci. Rep., 2014, 4: 7357.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne, C., Robert-Inacio, F., Macaire, L. Digital Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA , 2012.
An edited book
Bortz, J.H., Ramlaul, A., Munro, L. eds CT Colonography for Radiographers: A Guide to Performance and Image Interpretation. Springer International Publishing, Cham , 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Povh, B., Rith, K., Scholz, C., Zetsche, F., Rodejohann, W. Scattering. In: Rith, K., Scholz, C., Zetsche, F., and Rodejohann, W. (eds.) Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts. pp. 41–53. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sleep Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Amazing Footage Captures Part Of A Chinese Rocket Burning Up Over The US,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Measuring Progress and Addressing Potential Privacy Concerns Would Facilitate Integration into the National Airspace System [Reissued on September 18, 2012]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nistal França, F.J. Nondestructive Evaluation of Southern Pine Lumber, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., Belson, K., Borden, S. Fourth, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilmot, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Jang and Cho, 2014; Wilmot, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jang and Cho, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Vyas et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sleep Research
AbbreviationJ. Sleep Res.
ISSN (print)0962-1105
ISSN (online)1365-2869
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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