How to format your references using the Journal of Sleep Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sleep Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaumseil, J. Applied physics. Electronic control of circularly polarized light emission. Science, 2014, 344: 702–703.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider, R., Persson, S. PLANT SCIENCE. Another brick in the wall. Science, 2015, 350: 156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okita, K., Ichisaka, T., Yamanaka, S. Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 2007, 448: 313–317.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Furnes, H., de Wit, M., Staudigel, H., Rosing, M., Muehlenbachs, K. A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite. Science, 2007, 315: 1704–1707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthou, P., Baudoin, C., Gayraud, T., Gineste, M. Satellite and Terrestrial Hybrid Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2015.
An edited book
Jacob, C., Pilat, M.L., Bentley, P.J., Timmis, J.I. eds Artificial Immune Systems: 4th International Conference, ICARIS 2005, Banff, Alberta, Canada, August 14-17, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg , 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, X. Legal Theoretical Analysis on the Market Economy Mode of China—Discussing from the Status of Market Economy in Anti-dumpling. In: Zhou, M. (ed.) Advances in Education and Management: International Symposium, ISAEBD 2011, Dalian, China, August 6-7, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV. pp. 34–40. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sleep Research.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, But Key Systems at Risk. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A.S. Fatigue Behavior and Microstructure of Direct Laser Deposited Inconel 718 Alloy, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kirk, S. Aid for Greece Sought, 1942.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaumseil, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Schneider and Persson, 2015; Zaumseil, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schneider and Persson, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Furnes et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sleep Research
AbbreviationJ. Sleep Res.
ISSN (print)0962-1105
ISSN (online)1365-2869
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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