How to format your references using the Journal of Sleep Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sleep Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marte, B. Tumour heterogeneity. Nature, 2013, 501: 327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robinton, D.A., Daley, G.Q. The promise of induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy. Nature, 2012, 481: 295–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Durham, W.M., Kessler, J.O., Stocker, R. Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin phytoplankton layers. Science, 2009, 323: 1067–1070.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Blattman, J.N., Kennedy, N.J., et al. Regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by MAP kinase phosphatase 5. Nature, 2004, 430: 793–797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, M. Pharmazeutische Mikrobiologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany , 2012.
An edited book
Priol, T., Vanneschi, M. eds From Grids to Service and Pervasive Computing. Springer US, Boston, MA , 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Kutteh, W.H. Inherited and Acquired Thrombophilias and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. In: Bashiri, A., Harlev, A., and Agarwal, A. (eds.) Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Evidence-Based Evaluation, Diagnosis and Treatment. pp. 67–73. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sleep Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Ada Lovelace And The Role Models Who Guide Women Towards A Life Less Ordinary,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Review of the District of Columbia’s Automatic Data Processing Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, Y. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Need Milk? Too Bad. Maybe a Thong?, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marte, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Marte, 2013; Robinton and Daley, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robinton and Daley, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sleep Research
AbbreviationJ. Sleep Res.
ISSN (print)0962-1105
ISSN (online)1365-2869
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles