How to format your references using the Journal of Sleep Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sleep Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, R.J.D. Femtosecond crystallography with ultrabright electrons and x-rays: capturing chemistry in action. Science, 2014, 343: 1108–1116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M.T.J., Rubinstein, J.L. Structural biology. Beyond blob-ology. Science, 2014, 345: 617–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Innocenti, P., Morrow, E.H., Dowling, D.K. Experimental evidence supports a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution. Science, 2011, 332: 845–848.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sasaki, S., Ishiguro, R., Caupin, F., Maris, H.J., Balibar, S. Superfluidity of grain boundaries and supersolid behavior. Science, 2006, 313: 1098–1100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Q.K. Power Distribution Network Design For VLSI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2005.
An edited book
Spokoiny, V. Basics of Modern Mathematical Statistics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg , 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Zadeh, A.H., Sharda, R. Hawkes Point Processes for Social Media Analytics. In: Iyer, L.S. and Power, D.J. (eds.) Reshaping Society through Analytics, Collaboration, and Decision Support: Role of Business Intelligence and Social Media. pp. 51–66. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sleep Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. Enormous Green Meteor Caught On Camera Above California,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation and the Environment: Results From a Survey of the Nation’s 50 Busiest Commercial Service Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng, Y.H.-H. Motivation of participation in inservice training based on problem solving: A modified Delphi study, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Saving Sturgeon, And Caviar, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Miller, 2014; Smith and Rubinstein, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Rubinstein, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sasaki et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sleep Research
AbbreviationJ. Sleep Res.
ISSN (print)0962-1105
ISSN (online)1365-2869
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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