How to format your references using the Journal of Sleep Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sleep Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D. Entertaining science. Nature, 2010, 466: 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burrows, M., Sutton, G. Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect. Science, 2013, 341: 1254–1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klaholz, B.P., Myasnikov, A.G., Van Heel, M. Visualization of release factor 3 on the ribosome during termination of protein synthesis. Nature, 2004, 427: 862–865.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Srivastava, M., Hegde, M., Chiruvella, K.K., et al. Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice. Sci. Rep., 2014, 4: 6147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molino Sr., L.N. Emergency Incident Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2006.
An edited book
Romero, A.J. Preventing Adolescent Depression and Suicide Among Latinas: Resilience Research and Theory. Springer International Publishing, Cham , 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
About, I. Pulp Vascularization and Its Regulation by the Microenvironment. In: Goldberg, M. (ed.) The Dental Pulp: Biology, Pathology, and Regenerative Therapies. pp. 61–74. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sleep Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. When Parallel Worlds Collide . . . Quantum Mechanics Is Born,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Computer-Based Patient Records: Better Planning and Oversight By VA, DOD, and IHS Would Enhance Health Data Sharing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rieger, K. Phenomenological Exploration of the Characteristics of Successful Women Entrepreneurs, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, J. Figuring Out Who Really Had the Last Word in the Bush White House, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palmer, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2010; Magurran, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burrows and Sutton, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Caraveo et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sleep Research
AbbreviationJ. Sleep Res.
ISSN (print)0962-1105
ISSN (online)1365-2869
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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