How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Barabási A-L. The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics. Nature. 2005;435:207–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sikes JM, Newmark PA. Restoration of anterior regeneration in a planarian with limited regenerative ability. Nature. 2013;500:77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zavatta A, Viciani S, Bellini M. Quantum-to-classical transition with single-photon-added coherent states of light. Science. 2004;306:660–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ochiai H, Sugawara T, Sakuma T, Yamamoto T. Stochastic promoter activation affects Nanog expression variability in mouse embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sadati N, Dumont GA, Hamed KA, Gruver WA. Hybrid Control and Motion Planning of Dynamical Legged Locomotion. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Almeida A, Castro L, Speck F-O, editors. Advances in Harmonic Analysis and Operator Theory: The Stefan Samko Anniversary Volume. Basel: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wong KK-H, Colbert B, Batten L, Al-Hinai S. Algebraic Attacks on Clock-Controlled Cascade Ciphers. In: Barua R, Lange T, editors. Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2006: 7th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kolkata, India, December 11-13, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 32–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Research.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Greenland Shark Takes Record As Oldest Vertebrate By Living Up To 400 Years. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education Paperwork Requirements Are Burdensome: Better Federal Controls Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 May. Report No.: GGD-82-28.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Guedez A. Developing Correlations for Velocity Models in Vertical Transverse Isotropic Media: Bakken Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE INAUGURATION: Seizing the Day; New President Brings Opportunity to Cash In. New York Times. 1993 Jan 18;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Research
AbbreviationPharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0724-8741
ISSN (online)1573-904X
ScopeBiotechnology
Molecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science
Pharmacology

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