How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Weaver RL. Geophysics. Information from seismic noise. Science. 2005;307:1568–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Howard JAK, Probert MR. Cutting-edge techniques used for the structural investigation of single crystals. Science. 2014;343:1098–102.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dubilier N, McFall-Ngai M, Zhao L. Microbiology: Create a global microbiome effort. Nature. 2015;526:631–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Scheel O, Zdebik AA, Lourdel S, Jentsch TJ. Voltage-dependent electrogenic chloride/proton exchange by endosomal CLC proteins. Nature. 2005;436:424–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Storhas W. Bioverfahrensentwicklung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1. Khatib O, Kumar V, Rus D, editors. Experimental Robotics: The 10th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Maher NG, Murrell DF. A 52-Year-Old Italian Male with Widespread Blistering and Erosions Refractory to Regular Dose Prednisone. In: Murrell DF, editor. Clinical Cases in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Research.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Seeing Is Not Believing: Our Brains Trust Its Own Generated Images More Than Real Ones [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/seeing-is-not-believing-our-brains-trust-its-own-generated-images-more-than-real-ones/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfer: NIH-Private Sector Partnership in the Development of Taxol. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jun. Report No.: GAO-03-829.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gaete DO. Investigation of intuitive eating after intervention measured by the Intuitive Eating Scale [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Powell M. From the Cavaliers, A Nifty Glimpse Of ‘What If?’ New York Times. 2017 Jun 10;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Research
AbbreviationPharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0724-8741
ISSN (online)1573-904X
ScopeBiotechnology
Molecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science
Pharmacology

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