How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bhattacharjee Y. Sensitive technology. Schools fear impact of proposed license changes. Science. 2005;308:938–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brodsky EE, Lajoie LJ. Anthropogenic seismicity rates and operational parameters at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Science. 2013;341:543–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shuman ES, Barry JF, Demille D. Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule. Nature. 2010;467:820–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Faili A, Aoufouchi S, Flatter E, Guéranger Q, Reynaud C-A, Weill J-C. Induction of somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin genes is dependent on DNA polymerase iota. Nature. 2002;419:944–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Canham J, Bennett J. Mentorship in Community Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Bernardo M, Vink E de, Pierro AD, Wiklicky H, editors. Formal Methods for Dynamical Systems: 13th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication, and Software Systems, SFM 2013, Bertinoro, Italy, June 17-22, 2013. Advanced Lectures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jager MJ, Bronkhorst IHG. Immunology of Ocular Tumors. In: Singh AD, Damato B, editors. Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Basic Principles and Diagnostic Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Smallest, Most Precise 3D Printing Pen Yet Nearing Entry to Market. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Agencies Progress in Implementing Recent Legislation, but Enhancements Could Improve Future Plans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Oct. Report No.: GAO-11-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sharp LM. Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Eligon J. An Open Wound for Transgender African-Americans: ‘We’re Considered a Joke.’ New York Times. 2017 Aug 6;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Research
AbbreviationPharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0724-8741
ISSN (online)1573-904X
Molecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles