How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bowles S. Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution. Science. 2012;336:876–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Birchler JA, Kavi HH. Molecular biology. Slicing and dicing for small RNAs. Science. 2008;320:1023–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Victor DG, Gerlagh R, Baiocchi G. Climate policy. Getting serious about categorizing countries. Science. 2014;345:34–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kenward B, Weir AAS, Rutz C, Kacelnik A. Behavioural ecology: tool manufacture by naive juvenile crows. Nature. 2005;433:121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Riehle F. Frequency Standards. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
1. Jaworski P, Durante F, Härdle WK, Rychlik T, editors. Copula Theory and Its Applications: Proceedings of the Workshop Held in Warsaw, 25-26 September 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Raman M, Ambalam P, Doble M. Synbiotics and Colorectal Cancer. In: Ambalam P, Doble M, editors. Probiotics and Bioactive Carbohydrates in Colon Cancer Management. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. p. 83–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Dream Disorders Could Be Early Indicator Of Future Brain Disease. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Initial Pilot Training: Better Management Controls Are Needed to Improve FAA Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Nov. Report No.: GAO-12-117.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Moore AM. Assessing the demand for simplified stormwater modeling tools within the design profession to facilitate the adoption of sustainable stormwater practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barry E. Attacks Revive Russian Concern That Guerrilla Warfare Will Spread. New York Times. 2010 Mar 30;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Research
AbbreviationPharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0724-8741
ISSN (online)1573-904X
Molecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles