How to format your references using the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Büttiker M. Physics. Edge-state physics without magnetic fields. Science. 2009 Jul 17;325(5938):278–279.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Melville WK, Matusov P. Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface. Nature. 2002 May 2;417(6884):58–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lemieux C, Otis C, Turmel M. Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution. Nature. 2000 Feb 10;403(6770):649–652.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Numata T, Ikeuchi Y, Fukai S, Suzuki T, Nureki O. Snapshots of tRNA sulphuration via an adenylated intermediate. Nature. 2006 Jul 27;442(7101):419–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Nellist JG. Understanding Telecommunications and Lightwave Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Heidrich J, Oivo M, Jedlitschka A, Baldassarre MT, editors. Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 14th International Conference, PROFES 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Djonin DV, Krishnamurthy V. Structural Results on Optimal Transmission Scheduling over Dynamical Fading Channels: A Constrained Markov Decision Process Approach. In: Agrawal P, Fleming PJ, Zhang L, Andrews DM, Yin G, editors. Wireless Communications. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. How Much Sugar Is It OK To Eat? [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 May 29 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-much-sugar-it-ok-eat/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Assessment of Testing Vertical Line Array Difar Sonobuoy AN/SS2-77. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tovar B. A drug and alcohol education and prevention program for Hispanic families: A grant proposal. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard M. Saves Those Stripes, Grab Some Scarves. New York Times. 2010 Jul 29;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,5,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Shoulder Elbow Surg.
ISSN (print)1058-2746
ISSN (online)1532-6500
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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