How to format your references using the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bernhard JM. Potential symbionts in bathyal foraminifera. Science. 2003 Feb 7;299(5608):861.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Yin YW, Steitz TA. Structural basis for the transition from initiation to elongation transcription in T7 RNA polymerase. Science. 2002 Nov 15;298(5597):1387–1395.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sun T-T, Tseng SC, Lavker RM. Location of corneal epithelial stem cells. Nature. 2010 Feb 25;463(7284):E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Roberge A, Feldman PD, Weinberger AJ, Deleuil M, Bouret J-C. Stabilization of the disk around beta Pictoris by extremely carbon-rich gas. Nature. 2006 Jun 8;441(7094):724–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H. Design of Steel Structures. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Lane HC, Yacef K, Mostow J, Pavlik P, editors. Artificial Intelligence in Education: 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Strenzke F. A Smart Card Implementation of the McEliece PKC. In: Samarati P, Tunstall M, Posegga J, Markantonakis K, Sauveron D, editors. Information Security Theory and Practices. Security and Privacy of Pervasive Systems and Smart Devices: 4th IFIP WG 11.2 International Workshop, WISTP 2010, Passau, Germany, April 12-14, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. A Nearby Nova Might Be Ready To Explode Again [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jun 14 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/a-nearby-nova-might-be-ready-to-explode-again/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Comments on the Office of Personnel Management’s February 20, 2008 Report to Congress Regarding the Retirement Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Brown JR. Trajectories of parents’ experiences in discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath of middle school bullying. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich JR. A Japanese Writer’s Reveries Are Voiced in Music. New York Times. 2017 Sep 15;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Shoulder Elbow Surg.
ISSN (print)1058-2746
ISSN (online)1532-6500
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles