How to format your references using the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kleiner K. Toronto rising. Nature. 2008 May 8;453(7192):252–253.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Zampieri N, Chao MV. Structural biology. The p75 NGF receptor exposed. Science. 2004 May 7;304(5672):833–834.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Patkowski K, Spirko V, Szalewicz K. On the elusive twelfth vibrational state of beryllium dimer. Science. 2009 Dec 4;326(5958):1382–1384.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Cheng Q, Wu K, Shi Y, Wang H, Wang GP. Directionally hiding objects and creating illusions at visible wavelengths by holography. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Anderson TJ. The Value of Debt in Retirement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Leuven RSEW, Ragas AMJ, Smits AJM, Velde G van der, editors. Living Rivers: Trends and Challenges in Science and Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Acquisti A. From the Economics to the Behavioral Economics of Privacy: A Note. In: Kumar A, Zhang D, editors. Ethics and Policy of Biometrics: Third International Conference on Ethics and Policy of Biometrics and International Data Sharing, ICEB 2010, Hong Kong, January 4-5, 2010. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Frances Kelsey, Doctor Who Saved The U.S. From Thalidomide, Dies At 101 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug 10 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/frances-kelsey-who-saved-us-thalidomide-dies-101/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Rapid Growth in Expedited Passenger Screening Highlights Need to Plan Effective Security Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Leal LS. Pair correlations in clean magnetic Josephson junctions. 2016;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Barry E, Kramer AE. In Biting Cold, Protesters Pack the Center of Moscow to Rally Against Putin. New York Times. 2012 Feb 5;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Shoulder Elbow Surg.
ISSN (print)1058-2746
ISSN (online)1532-6500
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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