How to format your references using the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis J. Beyond the standard model with the LHC. Nature. 2007 Jul 19;448(7151):297–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller F-J, Loring JF. Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation. Nature. 2014 Sep 25;513(7519):498–499.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajan R, Clement JP, Bhalla US. Rats smell in stereo. Science. 2006 Feb 3;311(5761):666–670.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang XQ, Ullah H, Jones AM, Assmann SM. G protein regulation of ion channels and abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells. Science. 2001 Jun 15;292(5524):2070–2072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider HJ. Wittgenstein’s Later Theory of Meaning. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kassinos SC, Langer CA, Iaccarino G, Moin P, editors. Complex Effects in Large Eddy Simulations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Shibata R. Globalization, Politics of Historical Memory, and Enmification in Sino-Japanese Relations. In: Zajda J, editor. Nation-Building and History Education in a Global Culture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

Blog post
Andrews R. Elon Musk Will Quit White House Advisor Role If America Leaves Paris Agreement [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Jun 1 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automating Medical Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conill AL. Dosimetric consequences of the parotid glands using CT-to-CBCT deformable registration during IMRT for late stage head and neck cancers. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Gridiron and Steel Toughened Judge In Clemens Case. New York Times. 2011 Mar 3;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Shoulder Elbow Surg.
ISSN (print)1058-2746
ISSN (online)1532-6500
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles