How to format your references using the Health Information Science and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Information Science and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rogers KC. Nuclear research. The past and future of University research reactors. Science. 2002;295:2217–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhu L, Li B. Low thermal conductivity in ultrathin carbon nanotube (2, 1). Sci Rep. 2014;4:4917.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Asaadi N, Ribe NM, Sobouti F. Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell. Nature. 2011;473:501–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shan Z, Stach EA, Wiezorek JMK, Knapp JA, Follstaedt DM, Mao SX. Grain boundary-mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline nickel. Science. 2004;305:654–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Raymond SU. Recession, Recovery, and Renewal: Long-Term Nonprofit Strategies for Rapid Economic Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. McDonald B. Pro SQL Server 2012 Reporting Services. Third Edition. McGehee S, Landrum R, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hofer H. Holomorphic Curves and Real Three-Dimensional Dynamics. In: Alon N, Bourgain J, Connes A, Gromov M, Milman V, editors. Visions in Mathematics: GAFA 2000 Special volume, Part II. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2010. p. 674–704.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Information Science and Systems.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Countries In The Middle East Will Be Hardest Hit By Water Shortages [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Assistance System Should Be Changed To Permit Greater Involvement by State Legislatures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Dec. Report No.: GGD-81-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Porter SM. Orthographic influence on the perception and production of Spanish loans in English [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2017 Oct 13;MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Information Science and Systems
AbbreviationHealth Inf. Sci. Syst.
ISSN (online)2047-2501

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