How to format your references using the Health Information Science and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Information Science and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Taubes G. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands. Science. 2000;288:2107–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Galitski V, Spielman IB. Spin-orbit coupling in quantum gases. Nature. 2013;494:49–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jacobs SS, Giulivi CF, Mele PA. Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century. Science. 2002;297:386–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Covert MW, Knight EM, Reed JL, Herrgard MJ, Palsson BO. Integrating high-throughput and computational data elucidates bacterial networks. Nature. 2004;429:92–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Blume SW. High Voltage Protection for Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Stoeglehner G. Integrated Spatial and Energy Planning: Supporting Climate Protection and the Energy Turn with Means of Spatial Planning. Neugebauer G, Erker S, Narodoslawsky M, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Aamodt MG. Using Background Checks in the Employee Selection Process. In: Hanvey C, Sady K, editors. Practitioner’s Guide to Legal Issues in Organizations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 85–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Information Science and Systems.

Blog post
1. Hale T. 23andMe Will Resume Giving Health Data In The US [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroad Safety: Hours of Service Changes Have Increased Rest Time, but More Can Be Done to Address Fatigue Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Sep. Report No.: GAO-11-853.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Paik Y. Redefining multidisciplinary teams: An institutional approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Drake and Ed Sheeran Top the Chart, Again. New York Times. 2017 Apr 10;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Information Science and Systems
AbbreviationHealth Inf. Sci. Syst.
ISSN (online)2047-2501

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