How to format your references using the Health Information Science and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Information Science and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dodt H-U. Microscopy. The superresolved brain. Science. 2015;347:474–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Roopnarine PD, Angielczyk KD. Community stability and selective extinction during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Science. 2015;350:90–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yoshikuni Y, Ferrin TE, Keasling JD. Designed divergent evolution of enzyme function. Nature. 2006;440:1078–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Guduru R, Liang P, Runowicz C, Nair M, Atluri V, Khizroev S. Magneto-electric nanoparticles to enable field-controlled high-specificity drug delivery to eradicate ovarian cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pohanish RP. HazMat Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Johannessen OM. Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications. Alexandrov VY, Frolov IY, Sandven S, Pettersson LH, Bobylev LP, Kloster K, et al., editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Muselli M. Switching Neural Networks: A New Connectionist Model for Classification. In: Apolloni B, Marinaro M, Nicosia G, Tagliaferri R, editors. Neural Nets: 16th Italian Workshop on Neural Nets, WIRN 2005, and International Workshop on Natural and Artificial Immune Systems, NAIS 2005, Vietri sul Mare, Italy, June 8-11, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 23–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Information Science and Systems.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Here Are 10 Questions Google Asked A Computer Engineer In A Job Interview. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of a Computer Hardware Acquisition for NOAA in Boulder, Colorado. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Sep. Report No.: AFMD-81-92.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McCarthy BA. Mentoring’s critical components: Four traditional teachers’, four alternate -route teachers’, and four mentors’ perspectives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Conte L. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2011 Apr 7;E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Information Science and Systems
AbbreviationHealth Inf. Sci. Syst.
ISSN (online)2047-2501
Scope

Other styles