How to format your references using the Health Information Science and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Information Science and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gravitz L. Cancer immunotherapy. Nature. 2013;504:S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nelson WJ, Nusse R. Convergence of Wnt, beta-catenin, and cadherin pathways. Science. 2004;303:1483–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Khatiwala S, Primeau F, Hall T. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO(2) concentrations in the ocean. Nature. 2009;462:346–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tyson GW, Chapman J, Hugenholtz P, Allen EE, Ram RJ, Richardson PM, et al. Community structure and metabolism through reconstruction of microbial genomes from the environment. Nature. 2004;428:37–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Arboleda H, Royer J-C. Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Urbano F, Cagnacci F, editors. Spatial Database for GPS Wildlife Tracking Data: A Practical Guide to Creating a Data Management System with PostgreSQL/PostGIS and R. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Proudler G, Chen L, Dalton C. Trusted Platform Architecture. In: Chen L, Dalton C, editors. Trusted Computing Platforms: TPM20 in Context. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 109–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Information Science and Systems.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Marijuana Provides Pain Relief For Men But Not Women. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Apr. Report No.: GAO-04-648R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grimpo M. How asthma is related with the rate of influenza vaccination in California’s children [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Captain America’s Mom: Some Shocking News. New York Times. 2016 May 26;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Information Science and Systems
AbbreviationHealth Inf. Sci. Syst.
ISSN (online)2047-2501
Scope

Other styles