How to format your references using the Journal of Sea Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sea Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R., 2002. Misconduct: the stars who fell to earth. Nature 420, 728–729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, M.R., Frame, D.J., 2007. Atmosphere. Call off the quest. Science 318, 582–583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laxon, S., Peacock, N., Smith, D., 2003. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. Nature 425, 947–950.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoo, C.-H., Yeom, J.-H., Heo, J.-J., Song, E.-K., Lee, S.-I., Han, M.-K., 2014. Interferon β protects against lethal endotoxic and septic shock through SIRT1 upregulation. Sci. Rep. 4, 4220.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Remy, J.-G., Letamendia, C., 2014. LTE Services. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ballesteros, J., Fernández Ruiz-Gálvez, E., Talavera, P. (Eds.), 2012. Globalization and Human Rights: Challenges and Answers from a European Perspective, Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bouhafs, F., Mackay, M., Merabti, M., 2014. Home Energy Management Systems, in: Mackay, M., Merabti, M. (Eds.), Communication Challenges and Solutions in the Smart Grid, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sea Research.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Here Are The Answers To Some Of The Weirdest Google Searches [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Aviation Safety: Research Supports Limited Use of Personal Computer Aviation Training Devices for Pilots (No. RCED-99-143). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, R., 2017. What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader? (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. The Matches at Indian Wells Come With a Generous Serving of Opulence. New York Times SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Allen and Frame, 2007; Dalton, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Frame, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sea Research
AbbreviationJ. Sea Res.
ISSN (print)1385-1101
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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