How to format your references using the Journal of Sea Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sea Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D., 2000. Plastics that conduct win inventors chemistry prize. Nature 407, 662.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hopkinson, C.S., Jr, Vallino, J.J., 2005. Efficient export of carbon to the deep ocean through dissolved organic matter. Nature 433, 142–145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloss, T.A., Witze, E.S., Rothman, J.H., 2003. Suppression of CED-3-independent apoptosis by mitochondrial betaNAC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 424, 1066–1071.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bi, K., Guo, Y., Liu, X., Zhao, Q., Xiao, J., Lei, M., Zhou, J., 2014. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. Sci. Rep. 4, 7001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, G., Wang, X., Li, X., 2014. Fundamentals of Complex Networks. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Brady, L.W., Yaeger, T.E. (Eds.), 2013. Encyclopedia of Radiation Oncology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohr, D., Zachmann, G., 2010. Silhouette Area Based Similarity Measure for Template Matching in Constant Time, in: Perales, F.J., Fisher, R.B. (Eds.), Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 6th International Conference, AMDO 2010, Port d’Andratx, Mallorca, Spain, July 7-9, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sea Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Returning To The Moon Is Ten Times Cheaper Than Thought, And It Could Lead To Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Higher Education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Trends and the Role of Federal Programs (No. GAO-06-702T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gordon, R.L., 2010. Neural and behavioral correlates of song prosody (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chang, S., 2006. High School Student Charged In Death of Newborn Daughter. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2000; Hopkinson and Vallino, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hopkinson and Vallino, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sea Research
AbbreviationJ. Sea Res.
ISSN (print)1385-1101
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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