How to format your references using the Journal of Sea Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sea Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D., 2004. Quantum dots show their true colours. Nature 432, 247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, W., Walz, J.Y., 2014. Porous nanocomposites with integrated internal domains: application to separation membranes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ismail-Zadeh, A., Honda, S., Tsepelev, I., 2013. Linking mantle upwelling with the lithosphere descent [corrected] and the Japan Sea evolution: a hypothesis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1137.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gordon, L., Abu-Farsakh, H., Janotti, A., Van de Walle, C.G., 2014. Hydrogen bonds in Al2O3 as dissipative two-level systems in superconducting qubits. Sci. Rep. 4, 7590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pashley, R.M., Karaman, M.E., 2005. Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Wood, P.R., 2009. Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery in Clinical Practice. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Saito, J.-T., Chaslot, G., Uiterwijk, J.W.H.M., van den Herik, H.J., 2007. Monte-Carlo Proof-Number Search for Computer Go, in: Herik, H.J. van D., Ciancarini, P., Donkers, H.H.L.M. (jeroen) (Eds.), Computers and Games: 5th International Conference, CG 2006, Turin, Italy, May 29-31, 2006. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sea Research.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Scientist Who Throws Cane Toad Sausages Out Of Helicopters Wins Top Award [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Proactive Management of FAA’s Security Program Needed (No. T-RCED-90-20). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plumer, D.R., 2010. The relationship between earned value management metrics and customer satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Suffolk Bill Focuses On Day Laborers. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGlone, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2007; Knight, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Walz, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawaguchi et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sea Research
AbbreviationJ. Sea Res.
ISSN (print)1385-1101
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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