How to format your references using the Journal of Science Education and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Science Education and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benton TG (2007) Ecology. Managing farming’s footprint on biodiversity. Science 315:341–342
A journal article with 2 authors
Dietrich WE, Perron JT (2006) The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature 439:411–418
A journal article with 3 authors
Polikanov YS, Blaha GM, Steitz TA (2012) How hibernation factors RMF, HPF, and YfiA turn off protein synthesis. Science 336:915–918
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Seidler RD, Purushotham A, Kim S-G, et al (2002) Cerebellum activation associated with performance change but not motor learning. Science 296:2043–2046

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murti Y, Vijayan C (2014) Essentials of Nonlinear Optics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Strachan MWJ (2013) Insulin Therapy: A Pocket Guide. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Krylov A, Nasonov A (2011) Edge-Directed Image Interpolation Using Color Gradient Information. In: Maino G, Foresti GL (eds) Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2011: 16th International Conference, Ravenna, Italy, September 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 40–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Science Education and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) The Unknown Crocodiles. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) The SEMATECH Consortium’s Start-up Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward S (2009) Historiography, prophecy, and literature: “Divina retribución” and its underlying ideological agenda. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Shop Till You’re Thirsty. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benton 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dietrich and Perron 2006; Benton 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dietrich and Perron 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Seidler et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Science Education and Technology
AbbreviationJ. Sci. Educ. Technol.
ISSN (print)1059-0145
ISSN (online)1573-1839
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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