How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norton DA. Species invasions and the limits to restoration: learning from the New Zealand experience. Science (2009) 325:569–571.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srinivasan K, Painter O. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system. Nature (2007) 450:862–865.
A journal article with 3 authors
Travis DJ, Carleton AM, Lauritsen RG. Contrails reduce daily temperature range. Nature (2002) 418:601.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Loarie SR, Duffy PB, Hamilton H, Asner GP, Field CB, Ackerly DD. The velocity of climate change. Nature (2009) 462:1052–1055.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geier R, Angelmaier V, Graubner C-A, Kohoutek J. Integrale Brücken. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA (2017).
An edited book
Zhong Z ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2012: Volume 1. London: Springer (2013). XXV, 910 p. 262 illus., 36 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner H, Bauer R, Melchart D, Xiao P-G, Staudinger A. “Radix et Rhizoma Asari — Xixin.,” In: Wagner H, Bauer R, Melchart D, Xiao P-G, Staudinger A, editors. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Herbal Medicines: Thin-layer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Chinese Drugs. Vienna: Springer (2011). p. 45–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Tropical Forests Will Still Exist In 2100 – But They Will Be A Sorry Sight. IFLScience (2015) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Central Artery/Tunnel Project: Cost and Financing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1996).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu T-WD. Isolation and Characterization of pco-1, which Encodes a Regulatory Protein that Controls Purine Degradation in Neurospora crassa. [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University (2003).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. QUICK BITE/Newark; The Best of Brazil. New York Times (2006)14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunology
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

Other styles