How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dohlman HG. Diminishing returns. Nature (2002) 418:591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Biju SD, Bossuyt F. New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature (2003) 425:711–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saether B-E, Engen S, Matthysen E. Demographic characteristics and population dynamical patterns of solitary birds. Science (2002) 295:2070–2073.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hansma PK, Schitter G, Fantner GE, Prater C. Applied physics. High-speed atomic force microscopy. Science (2006) 314:601–602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vento JJ. Financial Independence (Getting to Point X ). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2013).
An edited book
Cordeiro J, van Sinderen M eds. Software Technologies: 8th International Joint Conference, ICSOFT 2013, Reykjavik, Iceland, July 29-31, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Andersen JV, Nowak A. “Catching Animal Spirits: Using Complexity Theory to Detect Speculative Moments of the Markets,” in An Introduction to Socio-Finance, ed. A. Nowak (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 93–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Proxima Centauri Has A Starspot Cycle Just Like Our Sun. IFLScience (2016) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA’s Air Traffic Control Modernization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1999).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mark M. A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal. (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. The Puck Glides at Night In Amateur Hockey League. New York Times (1994)150.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunology
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

Other styles