How to format your references using the Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levasseur-Regourd AC. Cometary dust unveiled. Science. 2004 Jun 18;304(5678):1762–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutherland WJ, Burgman M. Policy advice: Use experts wisely. Nature. 2015 Oct 15;526(7573):317–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huey DJ, Hu JC, Athanasiou KA. Unlike bone, cartilage regeneration remains elusive. Science. 2012 Nov 16;338(6109):917–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Youn DH, Jang JW, Kim JY, Jang JS, Choi SH, Lee JS. Fabrication of graphene-based electrode in less than a minute through hybrid microwave annealing. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 30;4:5492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandler C. The Science of ADHD. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Smith FO, Reaman GH, Racadio JM, editors. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children with Cancer. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. (Pediatric Oncology).
A chapter in an edited book
Jiménez-Hoyuela García JM, Lozano SO, Torres DM del V, Cardo AG, Moreno ER. Nuclear Cardiology. In: Ribes R, Kuschnir P, Luna A, Vilanova JC, Jimenez-Hoyuela JM, editors. Learning Cardiac Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 127–51. (Learning Imaging).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

Blog post
Davis J. Fungal Infections Kill More People Globally Than Malaria Or TB [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Agencies Should Encourage Greater Computer Use on Federal Design Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Oct. Report No.: LCD-81-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClinton BE. Preparing for the third age: A retirement planning course outline for lifelong learning programs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. S.&P. Seeks Dismissal of U.S. Civil Suit Over Rating of Mortgage Debt. New York Times. 2013 Apr 23;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levasseur-Regourd 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Levasseur-Regourd 2004; Sutherland and Burgman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sutherland and Burgman 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Youn et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
ISSN (print)1674-7755

Other styles