How to format your references using the Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kilpatrick AM. Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus. Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):323–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Najemnik J, Geisler WS. Optimal eye movement strategies in visual search. Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):387–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesecker JM, Blaustein AR, Belden LK. Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature. 2001 Apr 5;410(6829):681–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Akhter S, Bailey BA, Salamon P, Aziz RK, Edwards RA. Applying Shannon’s information theory to bacterial and phage genomes and metagenomes. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan 8;3:1033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundararajan D. Discretewavelet Transform. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Łyda A, Warchał K, editors. Occupying Niches: Interculturality, Cross-culturality and Aculturality in Academic Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. (Second Language Learning and Teaching).
A chapter in an edited book
Kuder T. Integrated Leitbilder for Urban Development Policy: The Example of the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald. In: Strubelt W, editor. Guiding Principles for Spatial Development in Germany. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 1–19. (German Annual of Spatial Research and Policy).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. World’s Rarest And Smallest Dolphin Could Be Extinct Within 15 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Interstate Commerce Commission: Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Motor Carrier and Other Functions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-95-119.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Visweswaran K. Face Recognition Technique for Blurred/Unclear Images [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe SH. Mandan Territory. New York Times. 1904 Sep 24;REVIEW OF BOOKSBR642.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kilpatrick 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Najemnik and Geisler 2005; Kilpatrick 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Najemnik and Geisler 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Akhter et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
ISSN (print)1674-7755

Other styles