How to format your references using the Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prather MJ. Atmospheric science. An environmental experiment with H2? Science. 2003 Oct 24;302(5645):581–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans JW, Thiel PA. Chemistry. A little chemistry helps the big get bigger. Science. 2010 Oct 29;330(6004):599–600.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny B, Mueller K, Roberts L. HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS: Eastern Europe. Introduction. Science. 2010 Jul 9;329(5988):159.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McConnell JR, Arthern RJ, Mosley-Thompson E, Davis CH, Bales RC, Thomas R, et al. Changes in Greenland ice sheet elevation attributed primarily to snow accumulation variability. Nature. 2000 Aug 24;406(6798):877–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borchard-Tuch C, Groß M. Was Biotronik alles kann. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Summergrad P, Kathol RG, editors. Integrated Care in Psychiatry: Redefining the Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Medical Setting. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaouachi M, Jraidi I, Frasson C. Modeling Mental Workload Using EEG Features for Intelligent Systems. In: Konstan JA, Conejo R, Marzo JL, Oliver N, editors. User Modeling, Adaption and Personalization: 19th International Conference, UMAP 2011, Girona, Spain, July 11-15, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 50–61. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew D. Second Detection Heralds The Era Of Gravitational Wave Astronomy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internal Revenue Service: 2001 Tax Filing Season, Systems Modernization, and Security of Electronic Filing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Apr. Report No.: GAO-01-595T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reitz MA. Nonlinear Robust Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors With Applications to Hybrid Electric Vehicles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Village Wants Restaurant Wastewater Degreased. New York Times. 2007 Jun 3;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prather 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Prather 2003; Evans and Thiel 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Thiel 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (McConnell et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
ISSN (print)1674-7755

Other styles