How to format your references using the Journal of Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bensaude-Vincent B. Chemical analysis. Nature. 2001;410(6827):415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keightley PD, Otto SP. Interference among deleterious mutations favours sex and recombination in finite populations. Nature. 2006;443(7107):89-92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilb D, Gomberg J, Bodin P. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses. Nature. 2000;408(6812):570-574.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou TB, Qin YH, Lei FY, Huang WF, Drummen GPC. Prohibitin is associated with antioxidative protection in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cousley RRJ. The Orthodontic Mini-Implant Clinical Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Li Y. Leakage Resilient Password Systems. (Yan Q, Deng RH, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Rai J, Ramkumar M, Sugantha T. Calcareous Nannofossils from the Ottakoil Formation, Cauvery Basin, South India: Implications on Age and Late Cretaceous Environmental Conditions. In: Ramkumar M, ed. On a Sustainable Future of the Earth’s Natural Resources. Springer; 2013:109-122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J. Dogs Evolved To Eat Human Scraps As We Started Farming. IFLScience. Published November 10, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Proposed Oregon Purchase of Rail Line With Oil Overcharge Settlement]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Connor CS. Measurement of Dispersion and Attenuation in Granular Media Using a Filter-Correlation Method. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldstein D, Rothenberg B. They Built a Roof. It Got Loud. Now What? New York Times. September 2, 2016:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)1081-597X
ISSN (online)1938-2391

Other styles