How to format your references using the Journal of Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Clayton RN. Planetary Science. The Earth and the Sun. Science. 2011;332(6037):1509-1510.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Charbonnel C, Talon S. Influence of gravity waves on the internal rotation and Li abundance of solar-type stars. Science. 2005;309(5744):2189-2191.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Adini Y, Sagi D, Tsodyks M. Context-enabled learning in the human visual system. Nature. 2002;415(6873):790-793.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Fischer SEJ, Butler MD, Pan Q, Ruvkun G. Trans-splicing in C. elegans generates the negative RNAi regulator ERI-6/7. Nature. 2008;455(7212):491-496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Matthews C. Engineers’ Data Book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Janowski T, Mohanty H, eds. Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 4th International Conference, ICDCIT 2007, Bangalore, India, December 17-20. Proceedings. Vol 4882. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Galbraith R, Clyman SG, Melnick DE. Conceptual Perspectives: Emerging Changes in the Assessment Paradigm. In: Hafler JP, ed. Extraordinary Learning in the Workplace. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011:87-100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. China Completes World’s Largest Radio Telescope. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Inspectors General: Alleged Misconduct by NASA Inspector General. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Singh KK. An 8-PSK receiver using LNA & SRO: Design and mathematical analysis. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kolomatsky M. How Much You Need to Make. New York Times. June 23, 2017:RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)1081-597X
ISSN (online)1938-2391
ScopeOphthalmology
Surgery

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