How to format your references using the Journal of Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Urban KW. Studying atomic structures by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Science. 2008;321(5888):506-510.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Alabugin I, Mohamed RK. Chemistry. A CO₂ cloak for the cyanide dagger. Science. 2014;344(6179):45-46.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Warner DA, Uller T, Shine R. Transgenerational sex determination: the embryonic environment experienced by a male affects offspring sex ratio. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2709.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Xia W, Qiu B, Xia D, Zou R. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbons from metal-organic gels and their application in energy storage. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sewell G. Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Bojňanský V. ATLAS OF SEEDS AND FRUITS OF CENTRAL AND EAST-EUROPEAN FLORA: The Carpathian Mountains Region. (Fargašová A, ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rafajłowicz W. Method of Handling Constraints in Differential Evolution Using Fletcher’s Filter. In: Rutkowski L, Korytkowski M, Scherer R, Tadeusiewicz R, Zadeh LA, Zurada JM, eds. Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 12th International Conference, ICAISC 2013, Zakopane, Poland, June 9-13, 2013, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:46-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Dear parents, you are being lied to. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Tax Policy: Uncertain Impact of Repealing the Deferral for Reinvested Shipping Income. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Myers KE. The First Determination of the Proton’s Weak Charge Through Parity-Violating Asymmetry Measurements in Elastic e + p and e + Al Scattering. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Price M. Trial by Fire: 2 Forests Offer Clues to Yellowstone’s Future. New York Times. September 13, 2017:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)1081-597X
ISSN (online)1938-2391
ScopeOphthalmology
Surgery

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