How to format your references using the Journal of Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Nathan C. Microbiology. An antibiotic mimics immunity. Science. 2008;322(5906):1337-1338.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Purves D, Pacala S. Predictive models of forest dynamics. Science. 2008;320(5882):1452-1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yoshida N, Omukai K, Hernquist L. Protostar formation in the early universe. Science. 2008;321(5889):669-671.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Motoyama EM, Yu G, Vishik IM, Vajk OP, Mang PK, Greven M. Spin correlations in the electron-doped high-transition-temperature superconductor Nd2-xCexCuO4+/-delta. Nature. 2007;445(7124):186-189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Moritz FG. Electromechanical Motion Systems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Shumaker R, Lackey S, eds. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: 7th International Conference, VAMR 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings. Vol 9179. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Quang NP, Dittrich J-A. Problems of actual-value measurement and vector orientation. In: Dittrich J-A, ed. Vector Control of Three-Phase AC Machines: System Development in the Practice. Power Systems. Springer; 2008:107-141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Scientists Discover 500 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Embryos. IFLScience. Published April 10, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scientists-discover-500-million-year-old-fossilized-embryos/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Agencies Should Encourage Greater Computer Use on Federal Design Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bagley CR. Pint-sized spectacles: American youth beauty queens and the power(ful) dynamic of the institutionalized pageant. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kishkovsky S. A Festival in Red Square For the End of Summer. New York Times. August 21, 2011:TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)1081-597X
ISSN (online)1938-2391
ScopeOphthalmology
Surgery

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