How to format your references using the Journal of Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Charron DJ. Obituary: Jean Dausset (1916-2009). Nature. 2009;460(7253):338.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Vaia R, Baur J. Materials science. Adaptive composites. Science. 2008;319(5862):420-421.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Schummers J, Yu H, Sur M. Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex. Science. 2008;320(5883):1638-1643.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dreyfus R, Baudry J, Roper ML, Fermigier M, Stone HA, Bibette J. Microscopic artificial swimmers. Nature. 2005;437(7060):862-865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chu PP. RTL Hardware Design Using VHDL. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Bernardini A. Bounding Uncertainty in Civil Engineering: Theoretical Background. (Tonon F, ed.). Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lichte P, Pape H-C. The Multiply Injured Patient. In: Smith WR, Stahel PF, eds. Management of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Trauma Patient. Springer; 2014:111-119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Anti-Psychotic Drugs Designed To Treat Mental Illness Are Being Used To Manage Challenging Behaviour. IFLScience. Published September 2, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/anti-psychotic-drugs-designed-treat-mental-illness-are-being-used-manage-challenging-behaviour/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education’s Federal Direct Loan Program: Status of Recommendations to Improve Cost Estimates and Presentation of Updated Cash Flow Information. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hilmey DG. Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds. Published online 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich JR. Inhaling an Era of Intimacy and Beauty. New York Times. September 13, 2016:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)1081-597X
ISSN (online)1938-2391
ScopeOphthalmology
Surgery

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