How to format your references using the Journal of Refractive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Refractive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Davidson EH. Emerging properties of animal gene regulatory networks. Nature. 2010;468(7326):911-920.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Shafto MA, Tyler LK. Language in the aging brain: the network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation. Science. 2014;346(6209):583-587.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sato TK, Overduin M, Emr SD. Location, location, location: membrane targeting directed by PX domains. Science. 2001;294(5548):1881-1885.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Gobert V, Gottar M, Matskevich AA, et al. Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Science. 2003;302(5653):2126-2130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cooney N. How to Be Great at Doing Good. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Dichev C, Agre G, eds. Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 17th International Conference, AIMSA 2016, Varna, Bulgaria, September 7-10, 2016, Proceedings. Vol 9883. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
John EPS. The Legacy of the Gi Bill. In: Meyer H-D, John EPS, Chankseliani M, Uribe L, eds. Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective: Reconciling Excellence, Efficiency, and Justice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013:57-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Refractive Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. How The Brain Changes In Alzheimer’s Disease: A New View. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. FAA Information Resources: Agency Needs to Correct Widespread Deficiencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mazyck BS. Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Williams J. Learning About His Subjects, and Himself. New York Times. August 27, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Refractive Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Refract. Surg.
ISSN (print)1081-597X
ISSN (online)1938-2391
ScopeOphthalmology
Surgery

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