How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freed EO. Virology. Rafting with Ebola. Science 2002;296:279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crombie AT, Murrell JC. Trace-gas metabolic versatility of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris. Nature 2014;510:148–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt MW, Vautravers MJ, Spero HJ. Rapid subtropical North Atlantic salinity oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Nature 2006;443:561–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Altshuler D, Pollara VJ, Cowles CR, Van Etten WJ, Baldwin J, Linton L, et al. An SNP map of the human genome generated by reduced representation shotgun sequencing. Nature 2000;407:513–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mynbaev KT. Short-Memory Linear Processes and Econometric Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Yan X, editor. Dan Shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in Medicine: Volume 1. Biology and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahsan J, Mordeson JN, Shabir M. Fuzzy Quasi-ideals and Fuzzy Bi-ideals in Semirings. In: Mordeson JN, Shabir M, editors. Fuzzy Semirings with Applications to Automata Theory, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 83–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Severe Solar Storms Might Go Undetected. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Attrition of Scientists at Three Regulatory Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sulaiman Y. The Banteng and the Eagle: Indonesian Foreign Policy and the United States During the Era of Sukarno 1945-1967. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Everyone’s Got a Different Dream. New York Times 2017:RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.
ISSN (print)0022-4073
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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