How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harte B: Geochemistry. Diamond window into the lower mantle. Science 334:51–2, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X, Zhou Z: Palaeontology: pterosaur embryo from the Early Cretaceous. Nature 429:621, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bielawski CW, Benitez D, Grubbs RH: An “endless” route to cyclic polymers. Science 297:2041–4, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Zhang J, Xu F, Hashimshony T, Keshet I, Cedar H: Establishment of transcriptional competence in early and late S phase. Nature 420:198–202, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee Abbott M, McKinney J: Understanding and Applying Research Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Hesketh PJ, editor: BioNanoFluidic MEMS. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodrigues F, Coles M, Dye D: Connection Managers. In: Coles M, Dye D, editors. Pro SQL Server 2012 Integration Services Berkeley, CA: Apress; page 83–1052012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew E: Asteroid 2013 TV135: It’s Not Armageddon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:’s-not-armageddon/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Actions Taken or Needed To Curb Widespread Abuse of the Citizens Band Radio Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Oct. Report No.: GGD-75-88.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mott CR: Sun compass orientation in juvenile green sea turtles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J: Deadly, Stylish Comfort. New York Times :C4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4–6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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