How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ottino JM: Engineering complex systems. Nature 427:399, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore T, Armstrong KM: Selective gating of visual signals by microstimulation of frontal cortex. Nature 421:370–3, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shipley B, Vile D, Garnier E: From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity. Science 314:812–4, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hasselmann M, Gempe T, Schiøtt M, Nunes-Silva CG, Otte M, Beye M: Evidence for the evolutionary nascence of a novel sex determination pathway in honeybees. Nature 454:519–22, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moorhouse M, Barry P: Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Simmons K: Pro SQL Server 2008 Administration. Carstarphen S, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Dong L, Chen K: Informal Analysis Schemes of Cryptographic Protocols. In: Chen K, editor. Cryptographic Protocol: Security Analysis Based on Trusted Freshness Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; page 83–1522012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrews R: Check Out These Volcanologists Brewing Vast Batches Of Homemade Lava [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Protest Alleging Agency Refused To Consider Bid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Oct. Report No.: B-178984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tosti CL: Quantification of dispersed and aggregated iron in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J: Liberal Town Erupts in Fury Over Policing. New York Times :A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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