How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain (J Pain). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Leach M: Accommodating dissent. Nature 450:483, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Brimioulle R, Bach T: Enantioselective Lewis acid catalysis of intramolecular enone [2+2] photocycloaddition reactions. Science 342:840–3, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Friis EM, Pedersen KR, Crane PR: Fossil evidence of water lilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous. Nature 410:357–60, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
1.
Harris SR, Feil EJ, Holden MTG, Quail MA, Nickerson EK, Chantratita N, Gardete S, Tavares A, Day N, Lindsay JA, Edgeworth JD, de Lencastre H, Parkhill J, Peacock SJ, Bentley SD: Evolution of MRSA during hospital transmission and intercontinental spread. Science 327:469–74, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Retherford RD, Choe MK: Statistical Models for Causal Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1993.
An edited book
1.
Wang J, Shen W-C, Zaro JL, editors: Antibody-Drug Conjugates: The 21st Century Magic Bullets for Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chapin JK: Hardware Implementation. In: Chapin JK, Gerhardt GA, McFarland DJ, Principe JC, Soussou WV, Taylor DM, Tresco PA, editors. Brain-Computer Interfaces: An International Assessment of Research and Development Trends Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; page 65–792008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E: Surinam Toad Childbirth: Trypophobics Need Not Apply [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/surinam-toad-childbirth-trypophobics-need-not-apply/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: James Webb Space Telescope: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Estimate and Oversight of Test and Integration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Dec. Report No.: GAO-13-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Estep KL: Outreach Communication by Grassroots Environmental Organizations: A Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Weiser B, Schwirtz M: Prison Guards Will Not Be Charged in an Inmate’s Death in 2015, Prosecutors Say. New York Times :A15, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Neurology

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