How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Elmegreen B: Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars. Nature 514:310–1, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Cuervo R, Chimal-Monroy J: Chemical activation of RARβ induces post-embryonically bilateral limb duplication during Xenopus limb regeneration. Sci Rep 3:1886, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Miyagoshi T, Kageyama A, Sato T: Zonal flow formation in the Earth’s core. Nature 463:793–6, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
1.
Hanson RE, Crowley JL, Bowring SA, Ramezani J, Gose WA, Dalziel IWD, Pancake JA, Seidel EK, Blenkinsop TG, Mukwakwami J: Coeval large-scale magmatism in the Kalahari and Laurentian cratons during Rodinia assembly. Science 304:1126–9, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dodson B, Hammett PC, Klerx R: Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Zerr B, Jaulin L, Creuze V, Debese N, Quidu I, Clement B, Billon-Coat A, editors: Quantitative Monitoring of the Underwater Environment: Results of the International Marine Science and Technology Event MOQESM´14 in Brest, France. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Scherer GG: Fuel Cell Types and Their Electrochemistry. In: Kreuer K-D, editor. Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology New York, NY: Springer; page 97–1192013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E: Vultures Next On The Endangered Bushmeat Menu [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/vultures-next-endangered-menu/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Sep. Report No.: GAO-06-1100T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tsai H-Y: Elucidating the Role of Protein Cofactors in RNA Catalysis Using Ribonuclease P as the Model System [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
(nyt) SK: World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Plan First Joint Military Exercise. New York Times :A6, 2004.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,4,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Neurology

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