How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Holmes D: A disease of growth. Nature 521:S2-3, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Grasset EK, Cerutti A: Immunology. Retroviral help for B cells. Science 346:1454–5, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wittkopp PJ, Haerum BK, Clark AG: Evolutionary changes in cis and trans gene regulation. Nature 430:85–8, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
1.
Alavi A, Hood JD, Frausto R, Stupack DG, Cheresh DA: Role of Raf in vascular protection from distinct apoptotic stimuli. Science 301:94–6, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bisswanger H: Enzyme Kinetics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Qing S, Okamoto E, Kim K, Liu D, editors: Information and Communications Security: 17th International Conference, ICICS 2015, Beijing, China, December 9-11, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Harter NN, Luu M: Drug Eruptions and Hypersensitivity Syndromes. In: Hogeling M, editor. Case-Based Inpatient Pediatric Dermatology Cham: Springer International Publishing; page 69–992016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
1.
Evans K: Drinking Two Coffees A Day Could Cut Risk Of Liver Cancer By A Third [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/drinking-two-coffees-a-day-could-cut-risk-of-liver-cancer-by-a-third/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Space Operations: NASA’s Use of Information Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-87-20.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bardhoshi G: The Relationship Between Assignment of Non-Counseling Duties and Burnout Among Professional School Counselors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey G: A Great Goal for the United States, But Not the First or Only Great One. New York Times :SP1, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Neurology

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