How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helin K: Bricks and mortar. Building Copenhagen’s BioCentre. Nature 428:238, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pennycook SJ, Kalinin SV: Microscopy: Hasten high resolution. Nature 515:487–8, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giustino F, Cohen ML, Louie SG: Small phonon contribution to the photoemission kink in the copper oxide superconductors. Nature 452:975–8, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kuznicki SM, Bell VA, Nair S, Hillhouse HW, Jacubinas RM, Braunbarth CM, Toby BH, Tsapatsis M: A titanosilicate molecular sieve with adjustable pores for size-selective adsorption of molecules. Nature 412:720–4, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanby M: No God, No Science? Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Pohl K, Broy M, Daembkes H, Hönninger H, editors: Advanced Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems: Extensions of the SPES 2020 Methodology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Uteshev AY, Yashina MV: On Maxwell’s Conjecture for Coulomb Potential Generated by Point Charges. In: Gavrilova ML, Tan CJK, editors. Transactions on Computational Science XXVII Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; page 68–802016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew E: Newly Discovered Dinosaur Had Neck Half The Length Of Its Body [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Tax Administration: Achieving Business and Technical Goals In Tax Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Apr. Report No.: T-GGD-93-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock M: Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA: Tools For Staying In Control. New York Times :SPG9, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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