How to format your references using the The Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm V: Chemistry. To cool or not to cool. Science 329:45–6, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nair S, Schilling TF: Chemokine signaling controls endodermal migration during zebrafish gastrulation. Science 322:89–92, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lou X, Scheuss V, Schneggenburger R: Allosteric modulation of the presynaptic Ca2+ sensor for vesicle fusion. Nature 435:497–501, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Gascard J-C, Watson AJ, Messias M-J, Olsson KA, Johannessen T, Simonsen K: Long-lived vortices as a mode of deep ventilation in the Greenland Sea. Nature 416:525–7, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn-Deinstrop E: Dünnschicht-Chromatographie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Norris JE, Stokes A, Mickovski SB, Cammeraat E, Beek R van, Nicoll BC, Achim A, editors: Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Masutani S, Senzaki H: Assessment of Ventricular Function Using the Pressure-Volume Relationship. In: Senzaki H, Yasukochi S, editors. Congenital Heart Disease: Morphological and Functional Assessment Tokyo: Springer Japan; page 97–1262015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew E: Step Into A Van Gogh With A Virtual Reality Tribute To His Famous Paintings [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Raised by Proposal to Replace the Airline Ticket Tax. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Dec. Report No.: RCED-97-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris DW: An examination of the impact of computer-based animations and visualization sequence on student understanding of Hadley Cells in atmospheric circulation [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K: Giving Advice, Business Titans Feel at Home in White House. New York Times :A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pain
AbbreviationJ. Pain
ISSN (print)1526-5900
ISSN (online)1528-8447
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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