How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramer, Achim. 2015. Circadian rhythms. When the circadian clock becomes blind. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 476–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito, Takumi, and Hiroshi Handa. 2015. Myeloid disease: Another action of a thalidomide derivative. Nature 523: 167–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cincotta, R. P., J. Wisnewski, and R. Engelman. 2000. Human population in the biodiversity hotspots. Nature 404: 990–992.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wikramanayake, Athula H., Melanie Hong, Patricia N. Lee, Kevin Pang, Christine A. Byrum, Joanna M. Bince, Ronghui Xu, and Mark Q. Martindale. 2003. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation. Nature 426: 446–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonilla, Luis L., and Stephen W. Teitsworth. 2010. Nonlinear Wave Methods for Charge Transport. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sikora, Axel, Marion Berbineau, Alexey Vinel, Magnus Jonsson, Alain Pirovano, and Marina Aguado, ed. 2014. Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 6th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, Offenburg, Germany, May 6-7, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8435. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bosman, Peter A. N., and Dirk Thierens. 2006. Numerical Optimization with Real-Valued Estimation-of-Distribution Algorithms. In Scalable Optimization via Probabilistic Modeling, ed. Martin Pelikan, Kumara Sastry, and Erick CantúPaz, 91–120. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Economics.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Spooky Action at a Distance” Confirmed by New Quantum Experiment. IFLScience. IFLScience. March 31.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Construction of a Computer Facilities Building by the Social Security Administration: Justification and Alternatives. HRD-77-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cardillo-Geller, Lauren. 2010. Renegotiating relationships, patterns of grief and experiences of support: An examination of mothers’ relationships with their daughters following daughters’ loss of a husband in the September 11 th, 2001 World Trade Center attacks. Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. Anything Can Happen In a San Francisco Series. New York Times, October 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kramer 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ito and Handa 2015; Kramer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ito and Handa 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wikramanayake et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Economics
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Econ.
ISSN (print)0971-1554
ISSN (online)2364-1045

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