How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astin, Christina. 2009. Helping young scientists to speak for themselves. Nature 460: 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holt, Christine E., and Simon L. Bullock. 2009. Subcellular mRNA localization in animal cells and why it matters. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 1212–1216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helled, Ravit, Eli Galanti, and Yohai Kaspi. 2015. Saturn’s fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness. Nature 520: 202–204.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guarani, Virginia, Gianluca Deflorian, Claudio A. Franco, Marcus Krüger, Li-Kun Phng, Katie Bentley, Louise Toussaint, et al. 2011. Acetylation-dependent regulation of endothelial Notch signalling by the SIRT1 deacetylase. Nature 473: 234–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1995. Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Veronese, Francesco M., ed. 2009. PEGylated Protein Drugs: Basic Science and Clinical Applications. Milestones in Drug Therapy. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Zhongwen. 2015. Before Unrooting your Android Phone, Patching up Permission System First! In Information Security Applications: 15th International Workshop, WISA 2014, Jeju Island, Korea, August 25-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, ed. Kyung-Hyune Rhee and Jeong Hyun Yi, 41–54. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Economics.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. A Load Of New Species Have Been Found In Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 16.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Essential Actions Remain to Ensure Delivery of Critical Services. T-AIMD-99-268. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, Daniel Jason. 2010. How the Lead Systems Integrator Experience Should Enhance Efforts to Rebuild the Defense Acquisition Workforce. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2014. Texas Noir, by Directors Who Aren’t From Texas. New York Times, May 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmitz 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kramer 2009; Whiten 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holt and Bullock 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Gandal et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Economics
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Econ.
ISSN (print)0971-1554
ISSN (online)2364-1045

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